PAGER - Common Building Types

Turkey

Reinforced concrete frame building with masonry infills

Approximately 80 percent of Turkey's urban households live in mid-rise apartment blocks constructed of cast-in-situ, reinforced concrete with masonry infill. The vertical structure consists of columns 200-300 mm in thickness, longer in one direction than in the other, and designed to fit within the walls. Floor and roof slabs are of "filler slab" construction, with hollow clay or concrete tiles used to form the voids, and are usually supported by reinforced concrete beams. In some cases the framing is flat-slab construction. The reinforced concrete frame is infilled with hollow-tile or masonry-block walls which are rarely connected structurally to the frame. These buildings have not performed well in recent earthquakes because poor design and construction have resulted in insufficient lateral resistance in the framing system. In many cases, this has been coupled with an inappropriate building form. Notwithstanding the existence of earthquake-resistant design codes for more than 30 years, many buildings have not been designed for an earthquake of a magnitude that could occur within the building's lifetime.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #64) - Polat Gulkan, Mark Aschheim, Robin Spence

Building Image
Reinforced concrete frame building with masonry infills image
Reinforced concrete frame building with masonry infills image

Tunnel form building

This type of rapidly constructed, multi-unit residential form has been used in Turkey since the late 1970s and early 1980s. It has demonstrated superior earthquake resistance and has also been increasingly utilized as permanent housing in post-earthquake reconstruction programs. Initially, the tunnel form building was targeted for multi-unit residential construction for public or privately sponsored housing projects. Typically, a single building may contain 15 or more stories and up to 40 or 50 residential units.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #101) - Ahmet Yakut, Polat Gulkan

Building Image
Tunnel form building image
Tunnel form building image

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*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.