PAGER - Common Building Types

Taiwan

Reinforced concrete frame with confined masonry infill walls (pre-1970s, designed for gravity loads)

This building type is common in most Taiwanese cities and towns. It represents a construction practice that was followed before 1970 and is no longer used. The main structural system for these buildings consists of RC frames built around brick masonry walls. Brick walls, usually 240 mm thick, were laid before the concrete was poured and were tightly connected to the adjacent concrete members. These brick walls are characterized with a good bond with RC members and they act integrally with RC members in resisting seismic forces. Buildings of this type are medium-rise (four to five stories high). Usually, the first floor (typically 4 m high) is used for commercial purposes while the upper stories (typically two to four stories above, floor height 3 m) are used for storage and residences. There are several known structural deficiencies: (1) the weak and soft first story; (2) typical building layout has walls in one direction only, perpendicular to the street; (3) extra rooftop additions increase the load. Many buildings of this type collapsed in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #61) - George C. Yao, M. S. Sheu

Building Image
Reinforced concrete frame with confined masonry infill walls (pre-1970s, designed for gravity loads) image
Reinforced concrete frame with confined masonry infill walls (pre-1970s, designed for gravity loads) image

Reinforced concrete moment frame with masonry infill

This building type is common in many Taiwanese cities and towns. The street-front buildings are medium-rise, reinforced concrete frames with infill brick masonry walls serving as partitions. Usually, the first floor (typically 4 m high) is used for commercial purposes while the upper stories (typically two to four stories above, floor height 3 m) are used for storage and residences. Neighboring units of similar design have been constructed together to form a corridor for pedestrians to walk in. Major seismic problems are due to the architectural layout of these buildings, characterized with the absence of walls or a very few walls in the direction parallel to the street. As a consequence, columns are the only elements resisting earthquake forces in the direction parallel to the street. This structural deficiency has led to a significant damage or even collapse in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #62) - George C. Yao, M. S. Sheu

Building Image
Reinforced concrete moment frame with masonry infill  image
Reinforced concrete moment frame with masonry infill  image

High-rise reinforced concrete moment frame with infill walls

This is a typical high-rise multi-family residential construction common in urban areas of Taiwan. The first and second floor are classified as Open Space (OS) and the ground floor is used by the residents for gardening and for leisure and social gatherings. The primary load-resisting system is reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame on a mat foundation. Soft-story configuration can cause increased seismic vulnerability.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #63) - Su C. Tung, George C. Yao

Building Image
High-rise reinforced concrete moment frame with infill walls image
High-rise reinforced concrete moment frame with infill walls image

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*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.