PAGER - Common Building Types
Unreinforced masonry with timber floors
This is an unreinforced masonry bearing wall construction with timber floors. It is closely spaced to the neighboring construction, and usually four to five stories high. The unreinforced masonry walls are usually made of simple stone (more or less regularly cut) or brick masonry with lime mortar. In some cases, a mixed masonry was also practiced, especially at the ground floors, with larger, well cut stones for the outer layer of the facade and simple stones or bricks placed behind during wall construction. The buildings are regular in plan and elevation. The timber floors are often not anchored to the masonry walls. The front and back facade usually have rather large openings for the windows whereas the side walls are solid and used for fire division. This building type was mainly constructed in the second half of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century in the vastly expanding city of Basel, but also in other Swiss cities.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #119) - Kerstin Lang, Hugo Bachmann
Braced timber frame construction
This type of construction can be found in both the urban and rural areas of Germany, Switzerland, northern France, and England. The main load-bearing structure is a braced timber frame. Brick masonry, adobe, or wooden planks are used as infill materials depending on the region. Through adequate bracing of timber elements, this construction type has proven particularly safe during past earthquakes, and some of the buildings have existed for over 700 years. The load-bearing structure consists of timbered joists and posts forming a single system with adobe or wooden infill.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #108) - Maria D. Bostenaru
*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.