PAGER - Common Building Types
Rubble-stone masonry houses are still found throughout Slovenia. This housing type with its special history represents a typical, older residential building in the northwestern part of Slovenia. After their destruction during World War I, these houses were rebuilt, mostly with the recycled stone material from demolished buildings. Many houses of this type were subsequently damaged during the last two earthquakes in Slovenia (1976 Friuli and 1998 Bovec). In order to preserve the country's architectural heritage, about 66% of these houses were strengthened following these earthquakes.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #58) - Marjana Lutman, Miha Tomazevic
Unreinforced brick masonry
This construction was commonly used for residential buildings in all Slovenian towns, and it constitutes up to 30% of the entire housing stock in Slovenia. The majority of these buildings were built between 1920 and 1965. They are generally medium-rise, usually 4 to 6 stories high. The walls are unreinforced brick masonry construction laid in lime/cement mortar. In some cases, the wall density in the longitudinal direction is significantly smaller than in the transverse direction. In pre-1950 construction, there are mainly wooden floor structures without RC tie-beams. In post-1950s construction, there are concrete floors with RC bond-beams provided in the structural walls. Roof structures are either made of wood (pitched roofs) or reinforced concrete (flat roofs). Since this construction was widely practiced prior to the development of the seismic code (the first such code was issued in 1964), many buildings of this type exceed the allowable number of stories permitted by the current seismic code (maximum 2 or 3 stories for unreinforced masonry construction). Buildings of this type have been exposed to earthquake effects in Slovenia. However, this construction type experienced the most significant damage in the 1963 Skopje, Macedonia, earthquake, which severely damaged or caused the collapse of many buildings.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #73) - Marjana Lutman, Miha Tomazevic
Confined brick masonry house
This is a very common single-family residential construction practice found throughout Slovenia, both in urban and rural areas. It is estimated that this construction accounts for approximately 40% of the entire housing stock in the country. Confined masonry has been practiced since the wide use of perforated clay blocks has started in the 1970s. The walls are constructed using perforated clay blocks in lime/cement or cement mortar. The main confining elements include horizontal reinforced concrete bond beams constructed atop the structural walls at each floor level, and vertical reinforced concrete tie-columns at the wall intersections. Floors are either of composite construction, consisting of concrete joists and hollow masonry tiles, or cast in-situ reinforced concrete slabs. Timber roofs are typically used in this type of construction. Since the first national seismic code was issued in 1964, the use of vertical reinforced concrete tie-columns is typically prescribed by the structural design. However, many existing houses were constructed without these critical structural elements. An additional deficiency characteristic for this construction practice is the absence of the top bond-beams along the gable walls (crown beams). This construction is expected to show good seismic performance. Buildings of this type were generally not affected by the past earthquakes in Slovenia.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #88) - Marjana Lutman, Miha Tomazevic
*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.