PAGER - Common Building Types

Russian Federation

Unreinforced concrete block masonry walls with concrete floors and roofs

This is a typical residential construction found both in urban and rural areas. The main load-bearing system for lateral and gravity loads consists of concrete block masonry walls and concrete floor slabs. The floor structure consists of the precast reinforced concrete hollow core panels, which are combined in horizontal diaphragm by means of cast-in-situ reinforced concrete bond beams (belt) constructed at the building perimeter. It represents a construction practice followed in the former Soviet Union. Buildings of this type constitute 15-30% of the housing stock in seismically prone areas of Russia (Far East, Siberia, Baikal Lake Region, North Caucasus) and in CIS states (Central Asia, Armenia, Georgia, etc.).

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #53) - Mark Klyachko, Yuriy Gordeev, Freda Kolosova

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Unreinforced concrete block masonry walls with concrete floors and roofs image
Unreinforced concrete block masonry walls with concrete floors and roofs image
Unreinforced concrete block masonry walls with concrete floors and roofs image

Concrete slab walls with reinforced concrete floors and roof (typical series: 1-306c, 1-307c, 114c)

This is a typical residential construction found both in urban and rural areas. It represents a construction practice followed in the former Soviet Union. Buildings of this type constitute 15-30% of the housing stock in earthquake-prone areas of Russia (Far East, Siberia, Baikal Lake Region, North Caucasus) and CIS states (Central Asia, Armenia, Georgia, etc.). Lateral load-resisting system consists of concrete slab walls and precast concrete floors. The prefab. slab panels (blocks) used for wall construction are joined together by means of welding. In most cases, the floor structure consists of precast concrete hollow-core slabs, combined in horizontal disk by special reinforced monolithic concrete bond beams (web blocks) located at the building perimeter. 

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #54) - Mark Klyachko, Yuriy Gordeev, Freda Kolosova

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Concrete slab walls with reinforced concrete floors and roof (typical series: 1-306c, 1-307c, 114c) image
Concrete slab walls with reinforced concrete floors and roof (typical series: 1-306c, 1-307c, 114c) image
Concrete slab walls with reinforced concrete floors and roof (typical series: 1-306c, 1-307c, 114c) image

Large reinforced concrete panel buildings (Series 122, 135 and 1-464c)

Large panel buildings represent one of the most common multifamily housing construction types (apartment buildings) in the former Soviet Union. Buildings of this type range from four to nine stories high. This construction practice started in the 1960s and has been followed ever since. This contribution describes three different types (series) of large panel construction, known as seria 122, seria 135, and seria 1-464c. These three types (seria) are characterized by welded panel connections. The main vertical load-bearing elements, designed to carry both gravity and lateral loads, are precast reinforced concrete panels. Typically, buildings are of a regular plan and are characterized by only one interior load-bearing wall in the longitudinal direction and several walls in the transverse direction. Floor and roof structures are also made of precast reinforced concrete panels. Both wall and floor panels are of room dimensions, and the assembly of these structures consists of setting the panels in their final position and joining them in a box-type structure by means of welded joints. The methodology of achieving panel connections in large panel construction practice has significantly improved in the last 50 years. Seria 1-464c is among the first seria of large panel construction. Initially, panel joints in seria 1-464c were achieved by welding the steel elements projecting from the panels. Later on, welded joints were replaced with the monolithic joints. Seria 1-464c is characterized by a plan typical for large panel buildings with continuous walls and a typical span (2.7 m or 3.6 m) of cross walls. Seria 122 is characterized by discontinuous facade walls in the longitudinal direction. Seria 135 is characterized by a larger span of cross walls (6m) as compared to the other types. Due to the large wall density, these buildings are rather rigid.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #55) - Mark Klyachko, Igor Mortchikchin, Igor Nudga

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Large reinforced concrete panel buildings (Series 122, 135 and 1-464c) image
Large reinforced concrete panel buildings (Series 122, 135 and 1-464c) image
Large reinforced concrete panel buildings (Series 122, 135 and 1-464c) image

Timber log building

This is a rural housing construction practice widespread in the forests of Russia. Buildings of this type are common for seismically prone areas of Russia (Far East, Siberia, Baikal Lake Region, North Caucasus). The load-bearing structure is made of logs. To construct the walls, timber logs are sawn horizontally in a square or circular cross section with special end joints (similar to dovetail joints). Buildings have timber roofs and fieldstone or concrete strip foundations. Typical seria 146-115-77 cm of 'Giprolesprom' for seismic regions is an example of this building type.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #56) - Mark Klyachko, Andrey Benin, Janna Bogdanova

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Timber log building image
Timber log building image

Wood panel wall buildings (typical seria 181-115-77 cm of "Giprolesprom")

This is a rural housing construction practice widespread in the forested areas of Russia. Buildings of this type are common in seismically prone areas of Russia (Far East, Siberia, Baikal Lake Region). The load-bearing structure is made of wood panel walls. Buildings have timber roof and fieldstone or concrete strip foundations. Typical seria 181-115-77 cm of 'Giprolesprom' for seismic regions is an example of this building type. Seismic resistance is relatively high, provided that the quality of materials and the construction are satisfactory.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #57) - Mark Klyachko, Andrey Benin, Janna Bogdanova

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Wood panel wall buildings (typical seria 181-115-77 cm of
Wood panel wall buildings (typical seria 181-115-77 cm of

Buildings protected with "disengaging reserve elements"

This building type is characterized with a special system of seismic protection called "Disengaging Reserve Elements" (DRE) or also known as vyklyuchayu-shchiesya svyazi. DRE are installed at the ground floor level of a building, which is typically a RC frame structure. The upper part of the building, usually nine stories high, is a load-bearing wall structure, either of large-panel RC construction or brick masonry construction. DRE consist of a "rigid structure" (usually RC wall panel) connected to the adjacent RC frame members by means of disengaging restraints. Disengaging restraints are sacrificial reserve elements (fuses) that serve as restraints for the "rigid structures." Typical restraints are steel plates joined together by means of rivets or steel bolts, steel bars, concrete prisms or cubes, etc. Initially, at the lower ground motion level, DRE and RC frame work together; at that stage, disengaging elements transfer lateral loads to rigid structures. DRE is an adaptive seismic protection system whose unique feature, the variable (self-adjusting) rigidity and periods of vibration during an earthquake, prevent resonance. This system is widely used in seismic-prone areas of Russia and Kyrgyzstan. Buildings of this type have not yet been exposed to the effects of damaging earthquakes.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #77) - Jacob Eisenberg, Svetlana Uranova, Ulugbek T. Begaliev

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Buildings protected with
Buildings protected with

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*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.