PAGER - Common Building Types

Romania

Reinforced concrete frame structure with diagonal bracing and brick infill walls

This is a post-World War II variant of the well-known Romanian 'inter-bellum' building. This urban housing construction was practiced in Romania over a rather short period of time after World War II until nationalization in 1947. Buildings of this type are still in use, mainly as apartment buildings. They are typically over seven stories high and the main load-bearing structure consists of a reinforced concrete space frame with reinforced concrete diagonal bracings. The floor structure consists of RC solid slabs and beams cast-in-place. The frames are infilled with brick masonry walls (typical wall thickness 140 mm or 280 mm). These buildings were designed according to the temporary guidelines issued in 1941 by the Ministry of Public Works (MLP) and based on German recommendations.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #71) - Maria D. Bostenaru, Ilie Sandu

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Reinforced concrete frame structure with diagonal bracing and brick infill walls image
Reinforced concrete frame structure with diagonal bracing and brick infill walls image
Reinforced concrete frame structure with diagonal bracing and brick infill walls image

Precast concrete panel construction

This multi-family urban housing construction type was built in Romania from the 1960s through the 1990s. The load-bearing system is a precast-reinforced-concrete large-panel construction. Buildings of this type are typically high-rises (10 or 11 stories), although there are also low-to medium-rise buildings (four to eight stories) with different structural details. In general, these buildings consist of a rectangular plan, with a honeycomb ("fagure") layout, with four apartments per floor. Wall panels are laid in both the longitudinal and the transverse direction. The panels are mechanically coupled at the base with continuous vertical reinforcement bars. There was no significant damage reported to the buildings of this construction type in the 1977 earthquake. Consequently, this construction technique has continued to be practiced after the 1977 earthquake.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #83) - Maria D. Bostenaru, Ilie Sandu

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Precast concrete panel construction image
Precast concrete panel construction image

Unreinforced masonry with timber floors

This is a multi-family housing type generally built in the 1930s in urban parts of Romania. Typical buildings are one or two-story load-bearing masonry walls. These buildings called "vila" in Romania are characterized by a rectangular plan and floor structure consists of timber joist overlaid by timber planks. The roof is made of timber trusses covered with sheating material. This construction type has performed well during the 1940 and 1977 earthquakes. The most common type of damage was in the form of cracks and falling chimneys. Because this construction is common, new retrofit techniques have been developed in recent years (in addition to the techniques used after the 1977 earthquake) to strengthen the existing building stock.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #84) - Maria D. Bostenaru, Ilie Sandu

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Unreinforced masonry with timber floors image
Unreinforced masonry with timber floors image

Unreinforced masonry

This urban housing type is particularly common in the southern part of the country. constructed from the end of the 19th century until the Second World War. The load-bearing system consists of two longitudinal unconfined brick masonry walls and several transversal unconfined brick walls, usually 28 cm thick, which form a wagon-like arrangement. The horizontal structural system is made out of wood joists separated by a distance of 0.70 m. Buildings of this type have been affected by many earthquakes in the past.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #85) - Maria D. Bostenaru, Ilie Sandu

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Unreinforced masonry image
Unreinforced masonry image
Unreinforced masonry image

Reinforced concrete shear wall construction

This is a high-rise multifamily residential construction in Bucharest, Romania. The main lateral load-resisting structure consists of reinforced concrete shear walls in both longitudinal and transversal direction.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #87) - Maria D. Bostenaru

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Reinforced concrete shear wall construction image
Reinforced concrete shear wall construction image

Reinforced concrete frame with masonry infill walls designed for gravity loads

This is multi-family residential construction type generally designed and constructed prior to modern seismic design codes. These buildings are mid or high-rise, often with basements. There are several functional variations according to the usage and combination of flats, offices, and shops. The construction type may have horizontal (plan) or vertical (elevation) structural irregularities. The load-bearing structure is reinforced concrete frame designed for gravitational loads only. Exterior walls have solid clay brick masonry infill which helps improve the seismic behavior.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #96) - Maria D. Bostenaru

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Reinforced concrete frame with masonry infill walls designed for gravity loads image
Reinforced concrete frame with masonry infill walls designed for gravity loads image

Reinforced concrete moment resisting frame and wall construction

This is a mid to high rise reinforced concrete frame plus wall (dual) construction type. The height range from 10 to 17 stories, with the ground floor being used for commercial purposes, while the upper floors as residential units. The vertical load bearing structure consists of moment-resisting reinforced-concrete frames which also generally serve as the lateral load-resisting system. However, when larger spans are encountered, reinforced-concrete structural walls are included to provide a dual structural system.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #97) - Maria D. Bostenaru

Building Image
Reinforced concrete moment resisting frame and wall construction image
Reinforced concrete moment resisting frame and wall construction image

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*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.