PAGER - Common Building Types
RC frame with masonry infill buildings
This is a nonductile (weak) reinforced concrete frame with masonry infill construction. This construction type is often non-engineered, and is commonly found in urban and semi-urban areas of Nepal. This technology was picked up after its relatively better performance during the 1988 Udaypur earthquake (M6.4), that severely hit eastern Nepal. These buildings can be used for multiple purposes such as residential, commercial, religious, educational, and sometime multifunctional usage. Inadequate structural detailing practice, use of poor quality construction materials, and inappropriate construction methods can cause increased seismic vulnerability.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #145) - Yukta Bilas Marhatta, Jitendra K Bothara, Meen Bahadur Magar, Gopal Chapagain
Stone masonry house
This is a typical oval-shaped rural construction concentrated in the central mid-mountain region, particularly in the Kaski, Syangja, Parbat, and Baglung districts of Nepal. The structural system consists of load-bearing uncoursed rubble stone masonry walls and a timber structure used for the floor and roof. The construction type is traditionally owner-built, by employing village artisan who are skilled or semi-skilled masons.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #47) - Yogeshwar K. Parajuli, Jitendra K Bothara, Bijay K. Upadhyay
Uncoursed rubble stone masonry walls with timber floor and roof
This is a typical rural housing construction in the hills and mountains throughout Nepal. It is a traditional construction practice followed for over 200 years. These are load-bearing structures constructed of uncoursed rubble stone walls in mud mortar, with timber floors and roofs. Absense of adequate connections between cross walls, and between floors and load bearing masonry walls can cause increased seismic vulnerability.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #74) - Yogeshwar K. Parajuli, Jitendra K Bothara, Bijay K. Upadhyay
Traditional Nawari house in Kathmandu Valley
The traditional nawari house is usually of low rise unreinforced brick masonry construction with rectangular plan with or without timber frame system. The bearing walls usually run through the height, creating front and back rooms. At the upper stories, the bearing wall is sometimes replaced by a timber frame system so as to create a larger continuous space. The staircase is usually a single flight to one side of the plan. The typical interstory height is quite modest, between 2.20 and 2.50 m, including the floor structure. The construction of each unit is usually independent so that the facades are not continuous over party walls but each unit forms a separate cell. Timber frame may be present, usually at ground floor facade walls, to provide an open space for workshops or shops. Currently these building types are substantially being altered by use of concrete or steel framing.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #99) - Dina D'Ayala, Samanta S. R. Bajracharya
*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.