PAGER - Common Building Types
Precast reinforced concrete frame building (Series 106)
Precast reinforced concrete frame buildings (series 106) were introduced in Kyrgyzstan around 1975. The load-bearing structure consists of a precast reinforced concrete space frame and precast floor slabs. Partition walls are constructed using clay-brick masonry units or small concrete blocks. These apartment buildings are usually nine stories high; less frequently they may be 12 stories. The fundamental period of vibrations is typically in the range of 0.65-0.85 sec. Series 106 was developed by the Kyrgyz Design Institute for construction in earthquake-prone areas. Buildings of this type have not yet been subjected to major earthquakes. These buildings are not considered to be highly vulnerable to earthquake effects, provided that the construction quality, particularly with reference to the joints, is satisfactory. It should be noted that precast frame buildings of a different type (Series 111) performed very poorly in the 1988 Spitak (Armenia) earthquake.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #33) - Ulugbek T. Begaliev, Svetlana Uranova, V. Manukovskiy
Unreinforced masonry walls with precast concrete floor slabs
The structural system consists of load-bearing masonry walls made of hollow clay tiles and precast concrete floors. Typical buildings of this type are three to four stories high and they are characterized with two longitudinal walls and several cross walls. Most of the buildings of this type were constructed in the 1960s. This construction practice was banned after 1966, due to the code provisions that required restriction of the size of the cores in hollow clay tiles (blocks). In some cases there may be two wall wythes: the exterior wythe made of hollow clay tiles and the interior wythe made of solid clay bricks. The floor system consists of precast reinforced concrete hollow core slabs.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #34) - Ulugbek T. Begaliev, Svetlana Uranova
Traditional wood frame construction (Yurta)
This is a traditional dwelling of the Kyrgyz people. The bearing structure of a yurta is a special wood frame, consisting of wood poles. The wood frame is covered by thick stretched cloth. The floors are traditionally covered with felt rugs (koshma). Yurtas can be easily disassembled and moved to new places. They are warm in winter and cool in the summer. The buildings have only one door and one opening in the roof. Yurtas are circular in plan with a diameter of 4 to 6 meters. This type of building is used at the present time by shepherds, particularly during the summer, for celebrations and funerals, and as temporary buildings during extreme situations in Kyrgyzstan. The yurta is a very light structure, has a symmetrical plan, and has good seismic resistance.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #35) - Ulugbek T. Begaliev, Svetlana Uranova
Unreinforced brick masonry with precast hollow-core slabs
This housing type represents a very popular single-family housing construction practice followed in Kyrgyzstan. The main load-bearing system consists of brick masonry walls in cement mortar partially confined with reinforced concrete posts and beams; columns are provided only at some wall corners and intersections. Wall thickness is either 380 mm or 510 mm. SNiP (Building Code) includes provisions for the horizontal wall reinforcement (welded wire mesh at the wall corners) and the provision of reinforced concrete columns at the wall corners. The floor system consists of precast reinforced concrete hollow-core slabs with typical slab panel dimensions of 5.86 m length X 1.2 m width. Reinforced concrete bond beam (belt) is constructed at the building perimeter at the floor level to provide the confinement and diaphragm action for seismic load effects. Complex building geometry and irregular wall distribution can cause significant torsional effects.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #36) - Ulugbek T. Begaliev, Svetlana Uranova
Prefabricated concrete panel buildings with monolithic panel joints (seria 105)
Prefabricated concrete panel building construction with monolithic panel joints has been practiced throughout the former Soviet Union (including Kyrgyzstan) since 1965. This type of prefabricated construction is known as seria 105. Apartment buildings of this type are usually five to nine stories high. The foundations are made of cast in-situ reinforced concrete. Steel dowels are provided in the foundations to ensure anchorage of steel rebars located in the panels and in the panel joints. The load-bearing structure in large panel buildings consists of reinforced concrete panels combined to form a box-type rigid system by means of special joints to increase seismic resistance.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #38) - Svetlana Uranova, Ulugbek T. Begaliev
Precast concrete column-slab construction (seria KUB)
Frame buildings without beams were introduced in the last decade of the Soviet Union (period 1980-1989) in some of the Soviet Republics: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, the Caucasian region of Russia etc. This type of precast construction is known as seria KUB. This type of apartment buildings are usually five to nine stories high; in some cases these buildings are 12 stories high. The load-bearing structure consists of precast reinforced concrete columns and slabs. Precast column elements are usually two stories high. Typically, column spans are equal to 6 m. Precast slab elements are made of solid concrete without ribs, and the dimensions are: 3 m x 3 m X 0.16 m (length X width X thickness). Most buildings of this type have some kind of lateral load resisting elements, such as cast-in-situ shear walls, precast shear walls, shear cross braces, etc. All precast structural elements are combined in 3-D moment frame by means of a special joint system. Partitions are made of brick masonry or small concrete block masonry. The seismic resistance of buildings of this type depends on the type of column-to-slab joints. Similar structures were damaged in the 1988 Spitak (Armenia) earthquake.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #39) - Svetlana Uranova, Ulugbek T. Begaliev
Reinforced concrete cast in-situ shear walls
Buildings with cast-in-situ load-bearing reinforced concrete walls are widespread in many republics of the former Soviet Union. The buildings of this type are typically medium to high-rise buildings (4 to 18 stories high; commonly 12 stories high). The load-bearing structure consists of cast-in-situ reinforced concrete walls and precast reinforced concrete floor slabs. Floor slabs are either two-way solid slab structures, or, less often, hollow-core slabs. These buildings do not have any frame elements (columns and beams). Facade walls are usually made of lightweight (ceramsite) concrete. The buildings are supported by concrete strip or mat foundations.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #40) - Svetlana Uranova, Ulugbek T. Begaliev, V. Manukovskiy
Unreinforced brick masonry building with wooden floors
This is a non-engineered construction practiced in Kyrgyzstan from 1920 to 1957. The load-bearing structure consists of unreinforced brick masonry walls and wooden floor beams. Brick masonry walls are usually constructed using mud mortar. The wall length between the adjacent cross walls is on the order of 9-10 m. Wooden floor elements (beams) are not tied together and they do not behave as diaphragms. Based on the performance in past earthquakes, this building type is considered to be vulnerable to seismic effects.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #41) - Svetlana Uranova, Ulugbek T. Begaliev
Mud walls with thatch roof
This building type is widespread in the rural areas of Kyrgyzstan, and also in some urban areas. Various building materials are used for this type of construction, e.g., clay and straw for the walls, wood for the roof structure, and stone for the foundations. In order to achieve adequate flexibility or plasticity, a small amount of clay is mixed with water. Straw is added to achieve an improved consistency. Small panel boards are used as formwork for casting mud walls. The walls are cast in lifts; a new lift is cast after the previous one has set. Windows and doors have wood lintels. Floors are made out of wood planks. Buildings of this type do not have any earthquake-resistant features and are considered to be vulnerable to seismic effects.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #42) - Svetlana Uranova, Ulugbek T. Begaliev
"Sliding belt" base isolation system
Sliding belt is a base isolation system developed to protect buildings from earthquake shaking by reducing and or limiting the level of seismic forces. The sliding belt system is installed at the base of the building between the foundation and the superstructure. The foundation is usually made of cast-in-situ concrete and the superstructure is typically a load-bearing wall structure, either a nine-story, large concrete panel system, or a three-story brick masonry construction. Once the earthquake base shear force exceeds the level of friction force developed in the sliding belt, the building superstructure starts to slide relative to the foundation. The lateral load transferred to the superstructure is expected to be approximately equal to the frictional force that triggers the sliding of the structure. The sliding belt scheme was developed in CNIISK Kucherenko (Moscow) around 1975. The first design application in Kyrgyzstan was made in 1982. To date, the system has been applied on over 30 buildings in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. All these buildings are residential buildings and are presently occupied. Base-isolated buildings of this type have not yet been exposed to large damaging earthquakes.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #76) - Jacob Eisenberg, Svetlana Uranova, Marat Abdibaliev, Ulugbek T. Begaliev
*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.