PAGER - Common Building Types
Steel frame with shear wall
These buildings are modern steel composite structures ranging from 3 to 24 stories. The buildings have a rigid steel frame with floor diaphragms made of post-tensioned concrete slabs or composite steel decking, with or without a concrete topping. Additional lateral force-resisting elements are added to the steel moment-resisting frame to stiffen the structure and enhance its seismic performance. Most of these buildings are used as apartments or offices in urban areas of Chile.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #3) - Elias Arze-L.
Concrete shear wall
Reinforced concrete shear wall construction is the predominant form of multi-family construction in urban areas of Chile for midrise and highrise buildings. It utilizes the shear resistance provided by concrete walls in both directions up the building height. The wall density (ratio of wall cross-sectional area to floor plan area) in each principal direction was roughly 3% for pre-1985 buildings. A study has shown that wall density remained unchanges in newer buildings, although typical number of stories has increased from 15 to 25. The wall thickness ranged from 20 to 30 cm in older buildings of this type, and 15 to 20 cm for newer buildings, even for buildings up to 20 stories high. Some walls may be perforated with openings (coupled walls), and connected through relatively shallow coupling beams in older buildings of this type (pre-1985 construction). In many newer buildings, coupling beams were often replaced with nonstructural materials (Massone et al, 2012). This construction type has performed extremely well with limited or no apparent damage in past earthquakes, especially M7.8 March 3, 1985 earthquake). Several buildings of this type located in Santiago were severely damaged in the M8.8 2010 Maule earthquake, mostly due to crushing and global buckling of walls in underground portion and the base level.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #4) - Ofelia Moroni, Cristian Gomez
Reinforced clay/concrete block masonry
This is a post-1970 construction widely used for dwellings and apartment buildings with up to four stories. It can be found both in urban and rural areas of Chile. The main load-bearing elements are masonry walls reinforced with vertical steel reinforcement bars and placed in the hollow cores of clay masonry units (hollow clay tiles) or concrete blocks. Horizontal reinforcement bars are placed in horizontal bed joints. Masonry shear walls are tied together at floor levels by means of reinforced concrete beams in a regular structural layout. Buildings of this type suffered damage in the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #5) - Ofelia Moroni, Cristian Gomez, Maximiliano Astroza
Concrete frame with shear wall
Buildings of this type are used mainly for offices or hotels, and they are found in large cities throughout Chile. This building type represents about 15-20% of the high-rise building stock in Chile (buildings with more than 10 stories high). The structural system consists of reinforced concrete frames and shear walls. The walls are typically located around the staircases and the elevators, while the frames may be uniformly distributed in plan or at the perimeter only. Most of the lateral load-bearing elements exist along the full building height in the elevation and in both directions of the building plan.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #6) - Ofelia Moroni, Cristian Gomez, Maximiliano Astroza
Chile has a long history of confined masonry construction practice which started in the 1930s after the 1928 M7.7 Talca earthquake (Astroza et al. 2012). It is mainly used for single-family dwellings and multi-family apartment buildings up to four stories high (construction of confined masonry apartment buildings started in 1990s). Buildings of this type are found in all regions of Chile. Structural system consist of load-bearing unreinforced masonry walls,commonly made of clay bricks or hollow tiles, or concrete blocks. It is common that more than one type of masonry units is used in the building - for example, exterior walls made of concrete blocks and interior walls made of clay bricks, These walls are confined with cast-in-place reinforced-concrete, vertical tie-columns. These tie-columns are built at regular intervals and are connected with reinforced concrete tie-beams cast after the masonry walls have been constructed. Tie-columns and tie-beams prevent damage due to out-of-plane bending effects and improve wall ductility. Floor systems are built using precast concrete joists and concrete masonry units with cast-in-place concrete topping (this is known as Tralix system in Chile) (see, http://www.nexus.globalquakemodel.org/gem-building-taxonomy/overview/glossary/precast-concrete-floor-with-reinforced-concrete-topping). Roof structure is timber truss supporting clay tile roofing. These buildings performed very well in past Chilean earthquakes. Apartment buildings of this type were exposed to M8.8 2010 Maule earthquake, and large majority of buildings remained undamaged. Two three-story buildings (one in Santa Cruz and another in Constitución) collapsed at the ground floor level.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #7) - Ofelia Moroni, Cristian Gomez, Maximiliano Astroza
Buildings with hybrid masonry walls
This is a common multi-family, multi-story (usually four stories), post 1980s urban construction in Chile. The main load-bearing system consists of masonry walls in the transverse direction and reinforced concrete walls in the longitudinal direction. In some cases, longitudinal walls are of reinforced masonry construction (instead of concrete construction). Masonry walls in the transverse direction are usually confined with concrete posts at the ends (similar to confined masonry construction). Buildings are usually regular in plan and in elevation.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #8) - Ofelia Moroni, Cristian Gomez, Maximiliano Astroza
*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.