PAGER - Common Building Types

Canada

Concrete shear wall highrise buildings

This is a high-rise reinforced concrete shear wall construction commonly located in downtown areas of Canadian cities. A typical multi-family building contains 100 to 200 units and provides housing for 300 to 500 inhabitants. The height of these buildings is variable and usually ranges from 12 to 35 stories. The lateral load-resisting system consists of reinforced concrete shear walls and concrete floor slabs (flat slab system). The gravity load is carried mainly by concrete columns and walls. Seismic detailing of shear walls in medium-to-high seismic regions is mandatory per the Canadian Concrete Code. Exterior walls are clad in stucco backed by cold-form steel framing or masonry veneer, steel/glazing panels, or precast panels. There is no report on the damage sustained by this building type in past earthquakes in Canada. However, because these buildings are designed according to state-of-the-art seismic codes, their seismic performance is expected to be satisfactory in an earthquake of design intensity (per the seismic design requirements of the National Building Code of Canada).

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #79) - John Pao, Svetlana N. Brzev

Building Image
Concrete shear wall highrise buildings image
Concrete shear wall highrise buildings image

Single-family wood frame house

Wood frame construction represents the most common single-family housing construction practice found throughout Canada,. A typical Canadian-style modern wood frame house consists of a concrete foundation, upon which a platform is constructed of joists covered with plywood or oriented-strand board (OSB) to form the ground-floor level of the house. This platform is connected directly to the foundation with anchor bolts. Alternatively, it can be supported by a short wall, a so-called "cripple wall," "pony wall," or "stub wall," which should be connected to the foundation with anchor bolts. On this base, the exterior and interior walls are erected, which consist of a horizontal sill plate with vertical timber studs with board or panel sheathing nailed to the studs on the outside of the building. The roof structure typically consists of prefabricated trusses, which are covered with sheathing and roof tiles. There is no evidence of substantial damage to this type of construction in past earthquakes in Canada, since they occurred away from densely populated urban centers. However, recent experimental research studies (Earthquake 99 Project at the University of British Columbia), focused on seismic performance of wood frame construction, have revealed vulnerability in this type of construction to seismic effects, depending on the age and wood construction technology.

Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #82) - Carlos E. Ventura, Mehdi H. K. Kharrazi

Building Image
Single-family wood frame house image
Single-family wood frame house image
Single-family wood frame house image

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*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.