PAGER - Common Building Types
A mud house is one of the traditional housing types found in rural areas or at outskirts of small cities of Bangladesh. This building type is typically one or two stories and preferably used for single-family housing. It is predominant in less flood-prone areas, i.e. in the highlands or in mountainous regions. These buildings have heavy weight, and the walls are characterized by low resistance to in-plane and out-of-plane earthquake forces, making them highly vulnerable to effects of natural disasters, in particular floods and earthquakes. The gravity load bearing system consists of 1.5 to 3.0 ft thick mud walls, which carry the roof load. Clay tiles, thatch or corrugated galvanized iron (CGI) sheets are used as roofing materials. Type of roofing depends on their local availability and the ability of the house owners. Wall to roof connection is often non-existent.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #143) - Amrita Das, Mohammad Shariful Islam, Dr. Md. Jahangir Alam, Nusrat Hoque
Unreinforced brick masonry house
This is a one-story brick masonry house of fired clay bricks with cement or lime mortar; roof is built using either CGI sheet or other materials. These houses can be seen throughout Bangladesh. This type of housing suffered heavy damage in the 1918 Srimangal, 1930 Dhubri, and other recent earthquakes,. In comparison, houses with a continuous lintel band suffered less damage. Traditional houses in Bangladesh can be categorized into two types: Kutcha and Semi-Pucca. Walls and roof in a Kutcha Houseare made of mud, bamboo, jute, grass or other organic material. Construction of Semi-Pucca Houses utilizes mixed materials such as wood, light steel frame, brick, bamboo, CGI sheets etc. Stilt houses made from wood/bamboo are more common in southern coastal regions of Bangladesh (Rashid 2007). Usually, wood/bamboo houses are light and have good seismic resistance. However, walls made from mud, adobe blocks, rammed earth, or bricks do not contain any reinforcement and such houses are thus vulnerable to earthquake shaking.
Reference: EERI and IAEE\'s World Housing Encyclopedia (Report #91) - Mehedi Ansary
Reinforced concrete frame construction
This construction type can be found in urban centers of Bangladesh. With tremendous increase in urban population and the scarcity and cost of land, multi-family ownedrship apartment buildings made of reinforced concrete frame with infill masonry construction are increasingly becoming popular in Bangladesh. Such a trend can also be seen in many other south-Asian countries. Given the very high initial investment demands, most of these buildings are generally designed and constructed by developers with the aim to sell individual apartment units and transfer the ownership to avoid future liabilities (Sarma 2010). Such construction type can be highly vulnerable to earthquake ground shaking due to With poor construction quality, limited engineering oversight, and lack of enforcement of design standards induring the design and construction stage.
Reference: USGS PAGER Team - USGS PAGER Team
*Building types and their descriptions are taken from the World Housing Encyclopedia (WHE) database when available or based on additional research performed by the PAGER team. This information is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete, and conclusions drawn from such information are the sole responsibility of the user.