Finite Fault Model

Preliminary Result of the July 6, 2011 Mw 7.6 Kermadec Islands Region Earthquake

Gavin Hayes, USGS


DATA Process and Inversion

We used GSN broadband waveforms downloaded from the NEIC waveform server. We analyzed 23 teleseismic broadband P waveforms, 6 broadband SH waveforms, and 27 long period surface waves selected based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution. Waveforms are first converted to displacement by removing the instrument response and then used to constrain the slip history based on a finite fault inverse algorithm (Ji et al., 2002). We use the USGS hypocenter (Lon.=-176.20 deg.; Lat.=-29.31 deg.). The fault planes are defined using the rapid W-Phase moment tensor solution of the NEIC.


Results

After comparing the waveform fits based on two planes, and the aftershock distribution, we find the second nodal plane (strike=170 deg., dip=52 deg.) the more likely rupture source. The seismic moment release based upon this plane is 2.78e+27 dyne.cm, using a 1D crustal model interpolated from CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000).

Cross-section of slip distribution



Figure 1. Cross-section of slip distribution. The strike direction of the fault plane is indicated by the black arrow and the hypocenter location is denoted by the red star. The slip amplitude are showed in color and motion direction of the hanging wall relative to the footwall is indicated by black arrows. Contours show the rupture initiation time in seconds.


Base Map and Moment Rate Function



Figure 2. Surface projection of the slip distribution superimposed on GEBCO bathymetry. Red lines indicate major plate boundaries [Bird, 2003]. Gray circles, if present, are aftershock locations, sized by magnitude.


Comparison of data and synthetic seismograms



Figure 3.1. Comparison of teleseismic body waves. The data are shown in black and the synthetic seismograms are plotted in red. Both data and synthetic seismograms are aligned on the P or SH arrivals. The number at the end of each trace is the peak amplitude of the observation in micro-meters. The number above the beginning of each trace is the source azimuth and below is the epicentral distance. Shading describes relative weighting of the waveforms.




Figure 4.1. Comparison of long period surface waves. The data are shown in black and the synthetic seismograms are plotted in red. Both data and synthetic seismograms are aligned on the P or SH arrivals. The number at the end of each trace is the peak amplitude of the observation in micro-meter. The number above the beginning of each trace is the source azimuth and below is the epicentral distance. Shading describes relative weighting of the waveforms.




Figure 4.2. Comparison of long period surface waves. The data are shown in black and the synthetic seismograms are plotted in red. Both data and synthetic seismograms are aligned on the P or SH arrivals. The number at the end of each trace is the peak amplitude of the observation in micro-meter. The number above the beginning of each trace is the source azimuth and below is the epicentral distance. Shading describes relative weighting of the waveforms.


Comments

This fault plane aligns well with the distribution of aftershocks (though at least some of these appear to be thrust-faulting events). This plane also aligns with a ~SE-NW bathymetric feature visible in GEBCO bathymetry, though whether or not this is a real feature is unclear (at least to me). Waveform fits to plane 2 are a few percent worse than for plane 1.


Slip Distribution


References

Ji, C., D.J. Wald, and D.V. Helmberger, Source description of the 1999 Hector Mine, California earthquake; Part I: Wavelet domain inversion theory and resolution analysis, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., Vol 92, No. 4. pp. 1192-1207, 2002.

Bassin, C., Laske, G. and Masters, G., The Current Limits of Resolution for Surface Wave Tomography in North America, EOS Trans AGU, 81, F897, 2000.


Acknowledgement and Contact Information

This work is supported by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of United States Geological Survey. This web page is built and maintained by Dr. G. Hayes at the NEIC.