Significant Earthquakes of the World

2004

                                                                                                           October 6, 2005

                                          SIGNIFICANT EARTHQUAKES OF THE WORLD, 2004


Earthquakes of magnitude 6.5 or greater or ones that caused fatalities, injuries or substantial damage.
   BRK--Berkeley.  PAS--Pasadena.  


 DATE  ORIGIN TIME      GEOGRAPHIC       DEPTH  MAG   SD  NO.           REGION, ADDITIONAL MAGNITUDES AND COMMENTS
 UTC       UTC         COORDINATES                        STA
        HR MN SEC     LAT       LONG                      USED


JAN 01  20 59 31.9   8.310 S  115.788 E   45    5.8  1.0  119  BALI REGION, INDONESIA. MW 5.8 (GS), 5.8 (HRV). mb 5.5 (GS). MS    
                                                                5.4 (GS). Mo 6.6*10**17 Nm (HRV), 5.6*10**17 Nm (GS). At least 
                                                                one person killed, 22 injured and 2,000 buildings damaged on 
                                                                Lombok. At least seven people injured and 4,000 buildings 
                                                                damaged on Bali. Felt (VI) at Karangasem, Bali and (V) at 
                                                                Mataram, Lombok.

JAN 03  16 23 21.0  22.253 S  169.683 E   22 G  7.1  1.1  597  SOUTHEAST OF THE LOYALTY ISLANDS. MW 7.1 (HRV), 6.8 (GS). mb 6.4    
                                                                (GS). MS 7.1 (GS). ME 7.1 (GS). Mo 5.9*10**19 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                1.6*10**19 Nm (GS), 8.2*10**19 Nm (PPT). Es 8.7*10**14 Nm (GS). 
                                                                Felt on Mare and at Noumea, New Caledonia.

JAN 10  18 38 14.8  36.852 N    3.418 E   10 G  4.5  1.0  190  NORTHERN ALGERIA. mb 4.5 (GS). MS 4.4 (GS). ML 4.6 (LDG). Three    
                                                                hundred people injured and additional damage to buildings in the 
                                                                Algiers-Boumerdes area previously weakened by the event of May 
                                                                21, 2003.

JAN 25  11 43 11.8  16.830 S  174.196 W  130 D  6.7  0.8  732  TONGA. MW 6.7 (GS), 6.7 (HRV). mb 6.4 (GS). ME 6.6 (GS). Mo    
                                                                1.1*10**19 Nm (GS), 1.1*10**19 Nm (HRV). Es 1.6*10**14 Nm (GS). 
                                                                Felt in the Vava'u Group.

JAN 28  22 15 30.7   3.120 S  127.400 E   17    6.7  1.1  243  SERAM, INDONESIA. MW 6.7 (GS), 6.7 (HRV). mb 6.0 (GS). MS 6.5    
                                                                (GS). ME 7.0 (GS). ML 6.7 (DJA). Mo 1.2*10**19 Nm (GS), 
                                                                1.1*10**19 Nm (HRV), 9.1*10**18 Nm (PPT). Es 6.4*10**14 Nm (GS). 
                                                                Felt (V) at Namlea, Buru and (II) on Ambon. A local tsunami was 
                                                                observed at Namlea.

FEB 04  11 59 47.6   8.358 N   82.877 W   29 D  6.1  0.9  465  PANAMA-COSTA RICA BORDER REGION. MW 6.1 (GS), 6.1 (HRV). mb 5.6    
                                                                (GS). MS 5.9 (GS). ME 6.8 (GS). Mo 1.6*10**18 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                1.5*10**18 Nm (GS). Es 3.1*10**14 Nm (GS). Four people injured, 
                                                                three houses damaged and a bridge collapsed in Chiriqui, Panama. 
                                                                Felt in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Felt strongly in southern Costa 
                                                                Rica, the Valle Central and at Limon.

FEB 05  21 05 02.8   3.615 S  135.538 E   17    7.0  1.0  367  PAPUA, INDONESIA. MW 7.0 (HRV), 6.8 (GS). mb 6.1 (GS). MS 7.1    
                                                                (GS). ME 6.7 (GS). Mo 3.4*10**19 Nm (HRV), 1.8*10**19 Nm (GS), 
                                                                7.2*10**19 Nm (PPT). Es 2.8*10**14 Nm (GS). At least 37 people 
                                                                killed, 682 injured, 2,678 buildings damaged or destroyed and 
                                                                nine bridges damaged in the epicentral area. The airport runway 
                                                                was damaged and power outages occurred in the Nabire area. Felt 
                                                                (VI) at Nabire, (V) at Enarotali and (IV) at Manokwari. Also 
                                                                felt at Tembagapura.

FEB 07  02 42 35.2   4.003 S  135.023 E   10 G  7.3  1.0  390  NEAR THE SOUTH COAST OF PAPUA, INDONESIA. MW 7.3 (GS), 7.3 (HRV),    
                                                                7.1 (OBN). mb 6.2 (GS). MS 7.5 (GS). ME 7.5 (GS). Mo 9.7*10**19 
                                                                Nm (GS), 1.0*10**20 Nm (HRV), 7.2*10**20 Nm (PPT), 5.0*10**19 Nm 
                                                                (OBN). Es 4.0*10**15 Nm (GS). Additional damage in the Nabire 
                                                                area.

FEB 08  08 58 51.8   3.665 S  135.339 E   26    6.7  1.1  256  PAPUA, INDONESIA. MW 6.7 (HRV), 6.5 (GS). mb 5.7 (GS). MS 6.9    
                                                                (GS). ME 6.6 (GS). Mo 7.2*10**18 Nm (GS), 1.2*10**19 Nm (HRV). 
                                                                Es 1.5*10**14 Nm (GS). Felt (VI) at Nabire.

FEB 11  08 15 03.8  31.675 N   35.551 E   27 D  5.3  0.9  386  DEAD SEA REGION. MW 5.3 (HRV). mb 5.1 (GS). MS 4.8 (GS). ML 5.2    
                                                                (GII). Mo 1.1*10**17 Nm (HRV). Four people injured in western 
                                                                Jordan and a landslide occurred at Ma'in. Minor damage to 
                                                                buildings at Jerusalem, Petah-Tiqwa, Tel Aviv and in the Nablus 
                                                                area. Felt from Cairo, Egypt to Lebanon.

FEB 14  10 30 22.1  34.774 N   73.216 E   11 G  5.5  0.9  353  PAKISTAN. MW 5.5 (GS), 5.4 (HRV). mb 5.4 (GS). MS 5.2 (GS). Mo    
                                                                1.9*10**17 Nm (GS), 1.6*10**17 Nm (HRV). At least 24 people 
                                                                killed, including 14 by landslides, and about 40 injured in the 
                                                                Balakot-Batgram-Mansehra area. More than 1,420 buildings 
                                                                collapsed, 5,379 damaged and roads cracked and blocked by 
                                                                landslides in the area. About 20 percent of water wells damaged 
                                                                in Manshera. Felt throughout the North-West Frontier Province. 
                                                                Power and telephone cables damaged at Srinagar, Kashmir. Also 
                                                                felt at Gulmarg, Kashmir and Kabul, Afghanistan.

FEB 14  11 56 57.5  34.798 N   73.206 E   11 G  5.4  0.8  369  PAKISTAN. MW 5.4 (GS), 5.3 (HRV). mb 5.4 (GS). MS 5.1 (GS). Mo    
                                                                1.2*10**17 Nm (GS), 1.1*10**17 Nm (HRV). Casualties and damage 
                                                                included with the event at 10:30 UTC.

FEB 16  14 44 39.9   0.466 S  100.655 E   56    5.1  0.9  199  SOUTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA. MW 5.1 (HRV). mb 5.2 (GS). MS 4.5    
                                                                (GS). Mo 4.6*10**16 Nm (HRV). At least 5 people killed, 7 
                                                                injured and more than 100 houses damaged in the Padangpanjang 
                                                                area. Felt (V) at Padangpanjang; (IV) at Batusangkar, Bukittingi 
                                                                and Padang; (II) at Pekanbaru.

FEB 21  02 34 42.7  58.425 S   14.963 W   10 G  6.6  1.3  102  EAST OF THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS. MW 6.6 (GS), 6.6 (HRV). mb    
                                                                6.0 (GS). MS 6.5 (GS). Mo 9.5*10**18 Nm (HRV), 8.4*10**18 Nm 
                                                                (GS), 1.5*10**19 Nm (PPT).

FEB 22  06 46 27.0   1.559 S  100.488 E   42 G  6.0  0.8  611  SOUTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA. MW 6.0 (GS), 6.0 (HRV). mb 6.3 (GS).    
                                                                MS 5.7 (GS). ME 6.3 (GS). Mo 1.3*10**18 Nm (GS), 1.2*10**18 Nm 
                                                                (HRV). Es 6.6*10**13 Nm (GS). One person injured, four houses 
                                                                badly damaged and many houses slightly damaged in Pesisir 
                                                                Selatan. Felt (V) at Padang and (III) at Bengkulu, Bukittinggi, 
                                                                Kapahiang and Padangpanjang. Felt on Singapore.

FEB 24  02 14 34.0   3.393 S   29.558 E   10 A  4.7  1.0   71  BURUNDI. mb 4.7 (GS). Three people killed and at least 24 houses    
                                                                destroyed at Ruyaga. Felt strongly at Bujumbura. Also felt at 
                                                                Bukavu, Congo; Kigali, Rwanda; Kabanga, Tanzania.

FEB 24  02 27 46.2& 35.142 N    3.997 W    0 G  6.4       786  STRAIT OF GIBRALTAR. . MW 6.4 (GS), 6.4 (HRV). mb 6.2 (GS).    
                                                                MS 6.4 (GS). ME 6.9 (GS). Mo 4.8*10**18 Nm (GS), 3.9*10**18 Nm 
                                                                (HRV). Es 5.9*10**14 Nm (GS). At least 628 people killed, 926 
                                                                injured, 2,539 homes destroyed and more than 15,000 people 
                                                                homeless in the Al Hoceima-Imzourene-Beni Abdallah area, 
                                                                Morocco. Maximum intensity IX in the Imzourene-Ait Kamra area. 
                                                                Ground cracks and landslides were observed between Ajdir and 
                                                                Beni Abdallah and maximum horizontal acceleration of 0.24g was 
                                                                recorded near Imzourene. Felt from Tetouan to Nador and as far 
                                                                south as Fes. Felt (V) at Melilla and (III) in many parts of 
                                                                southern Spain from Algeciras to Roquetas de Mar. Felt (II) at 
                                                                Cordoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaen and Madrid. Also felt in 
                                                                Gibraltar. Several aftershocks killed at least three people and 
                                                                destroyed previously weakened buildings. This earthquake 
                                                                occurred near the eastern end of the Rif mountain belt, which is 
                                                                part of the diffuse boundary between the African and Eurasian 
                                                                plates. The moment tensors and pattern of surface cracks 
                                                                indicate left-lateral strike-slip faulting on a buried NE-SW 
                                                                trending fault. This quake occurred near the epicenter of the 
                                                                magnitude 6.0 Al Hoceima earthquake of May 26, 1994, that 
                                                                injured one person and caused significant damage to adobe 
                                                                buildings. Special reports for this earthquake are available on 
                                                                the website http://www.emsc-csem.org.

FEB 25  12 44 57.4  35.278 N    4.113 W   10 D  5.3  1.1  283  STRAIT OF GIBRALTAR. MW 5.3 (HRV). mb 4.9 (GS). MS 4.9 (GS). Mo    
                                                                8.9*10**16 Nm (HRV). Casualties and damage are included with the 
                                                                event at 02:24 UTC. Felt (III) at Melilla and (II) at Estepona, 
                                                                Spain.

FEB 26  12 07 04.2  35.233 N    4.182 W   11 D  5.0  1.1  272  STRAIT OF GIBRALTAR. MW 5.0 (HRV). mb 4.8 (GS). MS 4.5 (GS). Mo    
                                                                3.1*10**16 Nm (HRV). Casualties and damage are included with the 
                                                                event at 02:24 UTC. Felt (III) at Melilla and (II) at 
                                                                Benalmedena, Spain.

MAR 01  23 55 19.0& 38.058 N   38.277 E    5 G  3.8         6  EASTERN TURKEY. . MD 3.8 (ISK). At least six people killed    
                                                                and two injured at Celikhan.

MAR 07  06 37 52.2& 35.036 N    4.022 W    0 G  5.1       274  STRAIT OF GIBRALTAR. . MW 5.1 (HRV). mb 4.8 (GS). MS 4.7    
                                                                (GS). Mo 4.7*10**16 Nm (HRV). Casualties and damage are included 
                                                                with the event of February 24, 2004 at 02:24 UTC. Felt (V) at Al 
                                                                Hoceima, Morocco. Felt (III) at Melilla and (II) at Malaga, 
                                                                Spain.

MAR 24  01 53 49.4  45.382 N  118.256 E   19 D  5.5  0.9  447  EASTERN NEI MONGOL, CHINA. MW 5.5 (GS), 5.4 (HRV). mb 5.6 (GS).    
                                                                MS 5.2 (GS). ME 5.5 (GS). Mo 1.9*10**17 Nm (GS), 1.3*10**17 Nm 
                                                                (HRV). Es 3.8*10**12 Nm (GS). At least 100 people injured and 
                                                                38,000 buildings damaged in the Bayan Ul Hot-Uliastai area. Felt 
                                                                at Chaoyang, Chengde and Baicheng. Damage from this earthquake 
                                                                and the aftershocks estimated at 74 million U.S. dollars.

MAR 25  19 30 49.0  39.930 N   40.812 E   10 G  5.6  1.1  237  EASTERN TURKEY. MW 5.6 (GS), 5.6 (HRV). mb 5.0 (GS). MS 5.4 (GS).    
                                                                Mo 3.3*10**17 Nm (HRV), 2.4*10**17 Nm (GS). At least ten people 
                                                                killed, 46 injured and 45 buildings damaged or destroyed in 
                                                                Erzurum.

MAR 28  03 51 10.0& 39.847 N   40.874 E    5    5.6       509  EASTERN TURKEY. . MW 5.6 (HRV), 5.5 (GS). mb 5.3 (GS). MS    
                                                                5.3 (GS). ML 5.3 (ISK). Mo 2.8*10**17 Nm (HRV), 2.1*10**17 Nm 
                                                                (GS). At least 12 people injured, more than 50 buildings in 10 
                                                                villages damaged or destroyed and many livestock killed in the 
                                                                Askale area.

APR 03  23 02 00.8  36.428 N  141.008 E   31 G  6.0  0.7  528  NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 6.0 (HRV), 5.9 (GS). mb    
                                                                5.7 (GS). MS 5.6 (GS). ME 5.6 (GS). Mo 8.9*10**17 Nm (GS), 
                                                                1.0*10**18 Nm (HRV). Es 5.8*10**12 Nm (GS). At least one person 
                                                                slightly injured at Naka. Felt strongly in Chiba, Fukushima, 
                                                                Ibaraki, Miyagi, Saitama and Tochigi Prefectures. Felt in much 
                                                                of east-central Honshu. Recorded (4 JMA) in Ibaraki and Tochigi; 
                                                                (3 JMA) in Chiba, Fukushima, Gumma, Miyagi, Saitama and Tokyo; 
                                                                (2 JMA) in Iwate, Kanagawa, Nagano, Niigata, Shizuoka, Yamagata 
                                                                and Yamanashi; (1 JMA) in Akita and Aomori Prefectures.

APR 05  21 24 04.0  36.512 N   71.029 E  187 D  6.6  1.0  728  HINDU KUSH REGION, AFGHANISTAN. MW 6.6 (GS), 6.5 (HRV). mb 6.4    
                                                                (GS). ME 6.4 (GS). Mo 7.5*10**18 Nm (GS), 6.3*10**18 Nm (HRV). 
                                                                Es 8.2*10**13 Nm (GS). At least one person killed in the Shahr-e 
                                                                Bozorg area and two people killed at Kabul. At least five people 
                                                                injured in Pakistan. Felt at Delhi and Guragon, India; Srinagar, 
                                                                Kashmir; Islamabad and Lahore, Pakistan. Felt (IV) at Termiz and 
                                                                (III) at Andijon, Fargona, Namangan and Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

APR 09  15 23 35.0  13.174 S  167.198 E  228 D  6.5  1.1  424  VANUATU. MW 6.5 (GS), 6.4 (HRV). mb 5.8 (GS). ME 5.5 (GS). Mo    
                                                                5.5*10**18 Nm (GS), 5.0*10**18 Nm (HRV). Es 3.4*10**12 Nm (GS).

APR 13  21 47 23.0& 40.729 N   31.629 E    5    4.1       116  WESTERN TURKEY. . mb 4.1 (GS). ML 4.6 (ISK). Four people    
                                                                injured jumping from buildings in the Bolu area.

APR 23  01 50 30.2   9.362 S  122.839 E   66 D  6.7  1.1  386  SAVU SEA. MW 6.7 (GS), 6.7 (HRV). mb 6.5 (GS). ME 6.5 (GS). Mo    
                                                                1.1*10**19 Nm (GS), 1.1*10**19 Nm (HRV), 9.5*10**18 Nm (PPT). Es 
                                                                1.4*10**14 Nm (GS). Minor damage at Kupang, Timor. Felt (IV) at 
                                                                Maumere and (II) at Rote, Flores; (III) at Sabu, Timor; (III) at 
                                                                Waingapu, Sumba. Felt in much of Timor. Also felt at Darwin, 
                                                                Kununurra and Wyndham, Australia.

MAY 01  07 56 13.6  24.081 N  121.611 E   45    5.2  0.9  191  TAIWAN. MW 5.2 (HRV). mb 5.2 (GS). MS 5.1 (GS). Mo 7.3*10**16 Nm    
                                                                (HRV). At least 2 people killed and 1 injured by a rockslide in 
                                                                Hua-lien County. A bridge collapsed at Taroko Gorge National 
                                                                Park. Felt in most parts of the island. Recorded (7 TAP) in Hua-
                                                                lien; (5 TAP) in I-lan; (3 TAP) in Nan-t'ou, T'ai-chung and Yun-
                                                                lin; (2 TAP) in Chia-i, Hsin-chu, Miao-li, T'ai-pei, T'ai-tung 
                                                                and T'ao-yuan; (1 TAP) in Kao-hsiung and T'ai-nan.

MAY 03  04 36 50.0  37.695 S   73.406 W   21 G  6.6  1.3  282  BIO-BIO, CHILE. MW 6.6 (GS), 6.6 (HRV). mb 5.9 (GS). MS 6.5 (GS).    
                                                                ME 6.3 (GS). ML 6.4 (GUC). Mo 8.4*10**18 Nm (GS), 1.0*10**19 Nm 
                                                                (HRV), 8.4*10**18 Nm (PPT). Es 5.9*10**13 Nm (GS). Minor damage 
                                                                (VI) and power outages occurred at Canete. Felt (VI) at Angol, 
                                                                Concepcion, Los Angeles, Talcahuano and Victoria; (V) at Lebu, 
                                                                Lonquimay, Temuco, Valdivia and Villarica; (IV) at Cauquenes, 
                                                                Chillan, Linares and Talca; (III) at Curico, Osorno, Rancagua 
                                                                and San Fernando; (II) at Santiago. Also felt at Chiguayante.

MAY 08  20 11 44.2  30.126 N   67.121 E   10 G  4.5  1.4   58  PAKISTAN. mb 4.5 (GS). At least one person killed, about 30    
                                                                injured and minor damage to some buildings in the Quetta area.

MAY 28  12 38 44.4  36.290 N   51.610 E   17 G  6.3  0.9  732  NORTHERN IRAN. MW 6.3 (HRV), 6.2 (GS). mb 6.2 (GS). MS 6.3 (GS).    
                                                                ME 6.2 (GS). Mo 3.7*10**18 Nm (HRV), 2.5*10**18 Nm (GS). Es 
                                                                3.8*10**13 Nm (GS). At least 35 people killed, 400 injured and 
                                                                many buildings damaged in Mazandaran and Qazvin Provinces. Some 
                                                                of the deaths were caused by landslides on the Tehran-Chalus 
                                                                road. Minor damage reported in Tehran. Felt in much of central 
                                                                and northern Iran. Felt (IV) at Lankaran and (III) at Baku, 
                                                                Azerbaijan. Felt (II) at Makhachkala, Russia.

MAY 29  20 56 09.6  34.251 N  141.406 E   16 G  6.5  1.0  352  OFF THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 6.5 (GS), 6.3 (HRV). mb    
                                                                5.6 (GS). MS 6.6 (GS). ME 6.3 (GS). Mo 6.9*10**18 Nm (GS), 
                                                                3.2*10**18 Nm (HRV). Es 7.4*10**13 Nm (GS). Felt along the coast 
                                                                of eastern Honshu. Recorded (1 JMA) in Chiba, Kanagawa, Miyagi 
                                                                and Shizuoka Prefectures.

JUN 10  15 19 57.7  55.682 N  160.003 E  189 D  6.9  0.8  798  KAMCHATKA PENINSULA, RUSSIA. MW 6.9 (GS), 6.9 (HRV). mb 6.1 (GS).    
                                                                ME 6.5 (GS). Mo 2.9*10**19 Nm (GS), 2.3*10**19 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                4.1*10**19 Nm (PPT). Es 1.4*10**14 Nm (GS). Felt (IV) at 
                                                                Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy.

JUN 28  09 49 47.0& 54.800 N  134.250 W   20 G  6.8       772  QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS REGION. . MW 6.8 (GS), 6.8 (HRV),    
                                                                6.7 (OBN). mb 5.9 (GS). MS 6.8 (GS). ME 6.8 (GS). Mo 1.9*10**19 
                                                                Nm (GS), 1.9*10**19 Nm (HRV), 2.8*10**19 Nm (PPT), 1.2*10**19 Nm 
                                                                (OBN). Es 3.1*10**14 Nm (GS). Felt strongly on the northern 
                                                                Queen Charlotte Islands. Also felt throughout the rest of the 
                                                                Queen Charlotte Islands and along the northwest coast of British 
                                                                Columbia at Kitimat, Prince Rupert, Stewart and Terrace. Felt 
                                                                (VI) at Craig; (V) at Klawock, Metlakatla and Petersburg; (IV) 
                                                                at Hyder, Juneau and Ketchikan; (III) at Sitka and Wrangell, 
                                                                Alaska.

JUL 01  22 30 09.3  39.766 N   43.979 E    5 G  5.1  1.1  422  EASTERN TURKEY. MW 5.1 (HRV). mb 5.4 (GS). MS 4.8 (GS). Mo    
                                                                5.6*10**16 Nm (HRV). At least 18 people killed and 21 injured in 
                                                                the Dogubeyazit area.

JUL 12  13 04 07.1  46.296 N   13.641 E    8    5.2  1.0  476  SLOVENIA. MW 5.2 (HRV). mb 5.0 (GS). MS 4.9 (GS). ML 5.7 (STR),    
                                                                5.6 (LDG), 5.6 (BRG), 5.5 (FBB), 5.5 (FUR), 5.4 (ZAMG), 5.4 
                                                                (PDG), 4.9 (LJU). Mo 7.1*10**16 Nm (HRV). One person killed and 
                                                                5 injured by a rockslide in the Bovec area. Some houses 
                                                                destroyed and others damaged at Kobarid. Felt in Ljubljana. Felt 
                                                                in northeastern Italy as far south as Venice and southern 
                                                                Austria as far northeast as Vienna. Also felt at Zagreb, 
                                                                Croatia; Munich, Germany; Prague, Czech Republic.

JUL 15  04 27 14.7  17.656 S  178.760 W  566 D  7.1  0.9  208  FIJI REGION. MW 7.1 (HRV), 7.0 (GS). mb 6.4 (GS). ME 6.6 (GS). Mo    
                                                                4.8*10**19 Nm (HRV), 4.1*10**19 Nm (GS). Es 2.1*10**14 Nm (GS).

JUL 18  04 22 22.6& 38.000 S  176.510 E    5    5.6        92  NORTH ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND. . MW 5.6 (GS), 5.4 (HRV). mb    
                                                                5.1 (GS). MS 5.1 (GS). Mo 2.5*10**17 Nm (GS), 1.5*10**17 Nm 
                                                                (HRV). One person killed and two injured in the Rotorua-Tauranga 
                                                                area. Five houses heavily damaged at Lake Roto Ma. Landslides 
                                                                occurred on the highway between Lake Rotoiti and Lake Roto Ma. 
                                                                Felt from Tauranga to Whakatane. This is the largest of a series 
                                                                of earthquakes in the Lake Rotoiti area.

JUL 18  08 31 45.8  33.426 N   69.524 E   10 G  5.2  1.4  216  CENTRAL AFGHANISTAN. MW 5.2 (HRV). mb 5.1 (GS). MS 4.8 (GS). Mo    
                                                                6.7*10**16 Nm (HRV). Two people killed, 40 injured and hundreds 
                                                                of houses destroyed in Paktia Province.

JUL 25  14 35 19.0   2.427 S  103.981 E  582 D  7.3  0.9  641  SOUTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA. MW 7.3 (GS), 7.3 (HRV). mb 6.8 (GS).    
                                                                ME 7.4 (GS). Mo 9.8*10**19 Nm (GS), 1.0*10**20 Nm (HRV). Es 
                                                                3.1*10**15 Nm (GS). Felt (IV) at Bengkulu and (III) at 
                                                                Padangpanjang. Felt (III) at Bandung, Bogor, Sawahan and 
                                                                Sukabumi; (II) at Jakarta, Java. Also felt (III) at Mataram, 
                                                                Lombok. Felt throughout Bali, Java, Lombok and Sumatra. Also 
                                                                felt in southern Johor, Malaysia and in Singapore.

JUL 28  03 56 28.6   0.443 S  133.091 E   13 D  6.5  1.1  305  NEAR THE NORTH COAST OF PAPUA, INDONESIA. MW 6.5 (HRV), 6.4 (GS).    
                                                                mb 6.0 (GS). MS 6.3 (GS). ME 6.4 (GS). Mo 6.3*10**18 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                4.6*10**18 Nm (GS). Es 9.8*10**13 Nm (GS). Felt (IV) at 
                                                                Manokwari and Sorong.

JUL 30  07 14 07.8& 39.634 N   43.966 E    5    4.8       132  EASTERN TURKEY. . mb 4.8 (GS). MS 4.0 (GS). At least one    
                                                                person killed, 5 injured and some houses damaged in the 
                                                                Dogubeyazit area.

AUG 04  03 01 07.5  36.833 N   27.815 E   10 G  5.6  1.3  412  DODECANESE ISLANDS, GREECE. MW 5.6 (HRV), 5.5 (GS). mb 5.1 (GS).    
                                                                MS 5.2 (GS). ML 5.4 (ATH). Mo 2.4*10**17 Nm (HRV), 1.9*10**17 Nm 
                                                                (GS). Fifteen people injured at Bodrum, Turkey. Felt at Akyaka, 
                                                                Datca, Didim, Fethiye, Gocek, Marmaris and Mugla, Turkey. Also 
                                                                felt on Kos and Rhodes.

AUG 10  01 47 32.8  36.444 N   70.796 E  207 D  6.0  0.9  492  HINDU KUSH REGION, AFGHANISTAN. MW 6.0 (GS), 6.0 (HRV). mb 5.3    
                                                                (GS). Mo 1.2*10**18 Nm (HRV), 1.1*10**18 Nm (GS). At least two 
                                                                people injured in Mansehra, Pakistan. Felt in Balkh, Kabul, 
                                                                Kondoz and Takhar, Afghanistan. Also felt at Chitral, Islamabad, 
                                                                Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Swat, Pakistan; Gurgaon, India; 
                                                                and Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Felt (IV) at Dushanbe, Tajikistan. 
                                                                Also felt (IV) at Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Felt (II) at Shymkent, 
                                                                Kazakhstan.

AUG 10  10 26 14.7  27.266 N  103.873 E    6 *  5.4  1.2  203  SICHUAN-YUNNAN-GUIZHOU REGION, CHINA. MW 5.4 (HRV). mb 5.1 (GS).    
                                                                MS 5.1 (GS). Mo 1.2*10**17 Nm (HRV). At least 4 people killed, 
                                                                nearly 200 seriously injured, 400 slightly injured, more than 
                                                                120,000 homeless, 18,556 houses destroyed and 65,601 damaged in 
                                                                Ludian County, Yunnan. Twenty-two reservoirs damaged in Yunnan 
                                                                Province.

AUG 11  15 48 26.8  38.377 N   39.261 E    7    5.7  1.1  487  EASTERN TURKEY. MW 5.7 (HRV), 5.6 (GS). mb 5.3 (GS). MS 5.5 (GS).    
                                                                Mo 3.6*10**17 Nm (HRV), 2.8*10**17 Nm (GS). One person killed, 
                                                                11 people injured and several houses damaged in the Elazig-
                                                                Sivrice area.

AUG 28  13 41 25.6& 35.173 S   70.525 W    5    6.5       349  MAULE, CHILE. . MW 6.5 (GS), 6.5 (HRV). mb 6.1 (GS). MS 6.3    
                                                                (GS). ME 5.9 (GS). ML 6.2 (GUC). MD 6.2 (SJA). Mo 7.2*10**18 Nm 
                                                                (HRV), 6.7*10**18 Nm (GS), 9.0*10**18 Nm (PPT). Es 1.8*10**13 Nm 
                                                                (GS). Power outages occurred at Cauquenes, Curico, San Javier 
                                                                and Talca. Felt (VI) at Curico, Romeral, Talca and Vichuquen; 
                                                                (V) at Cauquenes, Linares, Quillota, Rancagua, Santiago, 
                                                                Valparaiso and Vina del Mar; (IV) at Chillan, Concepcion, Los 
                                                                Andes, Quilpue and San Felipe; (III) at Cabildo; (II) at Los 
                                                                Angeles. Also felt (IV) at General Alvear and San Rafael; (III) 
                                                                at Mendoza, Neuquen and Santa Rosa; (II) at Buenos Aires and 
                                                                Cordoba, Argentina.

SEP 05  10 07 07.8  33.070 N  136.618 E   14 G  7.2  0.9  643  NEAR S. COAST OF WESTERN HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 7.2 (HRV), 7.0 (GS),    
                                                                7.3 (OBN), 7.2 (NIED). mb 6.7 (GS). MS 7.0 (GS). ME 7.5 (GS). Mo 
                                                                7.8*10**19 Nm (HRV), 4.0*10**19 Nm (GS), 8.8*10**19 Nm (OBN), 
                                                                7.5*10**19 Nm (NIED), 5.2*10**19 Nm (PPT). Es 3.7*10**15 Nm 
                                                                (GS). At least four people injured in the Kyoto area. Felt in 
                                                                much of southwestern Japan and as far northeast as Tokyo. A 
                                                                local tsunami was generated with maximum recorded wave heights 
                                                                (peak-to-trough) of 63 cm on Kozu-shima and 34 cm at Kushimoto. 
                                                                Recorded (5L JMA) in Mie, Nara and Wakayama; (4 JMA) in Aichi, 
                                                                Gifu, Hyogo, Kyoto, Osaka and Shiga; (3 JMA) in Chiba, Fukui, 
                                                                Hiroshima, Kanagawa, Nagano, Okayama, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tokyo, 
                                                                Tottori and Yamanashi; (2 JMA) in Gumma, Ishikawa, Saitama, 
                                                                Tochigi, Toyama and Yamaguchi; (1 JMA) in Ibaraki, Miyagi and 
                                                                Niigata Prefectures. Recorded (3 JMA) in Kagawa, Kochi and 
                                                                Tokushima; (2 JMA) in Ehime Prefectures, Shikoku. Recorded (1 
                                                                JMA) in Kagoshima, Kumamoto, Miyazaki and Oita Prefectures, 
                                                                Kyushu. Also recorded (3 JMA) on Kozu-shima, Nii-jima and O-
                                                                shima; (2 JMA) on Hachijo-jima, Mikura-jima and Miyake-jima; (1 
                                                                JMA) on Dogo and in the Dozen Islands.

SEP 05  14 57 18.6  33.184 N  137.071 E   10 G  7.4  0.9  594  NEAR THE SOUTH COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 7.4 (GS), 7.4 (HRV),    
                                                                7.5 (NIED). mb 6.2 (GS). MS 7.1 (GS). ME 7.4 (GS). Mo 1.5*10**20 
                                                                Nm (HRV), 1.2*10**20 Nm (GS), 1.7*10**20 Nm (NIED), 1.1*10**20 
                                                                Nm (PPT). Es 3.3*10**15 Nm (GS). About forty people injured in 
                                                                the Kyoto area. Felt in much of southwestern Japan and as far 
                                                                northeast as Tokyo. A local tsunami was generated with maximum 
                                                                recorded wave heights (peak-to-trough) of 93 cm on Kozu-shima 
                                                                and 86 cm at Kushimoto. Power outages occured at Wakayama and a 
                                                                fire occurred at Sakai. Recorded (5L JMA) in Wakayama and Mie; 
                                                                (4 JMA) in Aichi, Fukui, Gifu, Hyogo, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Shiga 
                                                                and Tottori; (3 JMA) in Chiba, Hiroshima, Ishikawa, Kanagawa, 
                                                                Nagano, Okayama, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tokyo and Yamanashi; (2 JMA) 
                                                                in Gumma, Ibaraki, Niigata, Saitama, Tochigi and Yamaguchi; (1 
                                                                JMA) in Miyagi Prefectures. Recorded (3 JMA) in Kagawa, Kochi 
                                                                and Tokushima; (2 JMA) in Ehime Prefectures, Shikoku. Recorded 
                                                                (1 JMA) in Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Oita and Saga 
                                                                Prefectures, Kyushu. Also recorded (3 JMA) on Hachijo-jima, Kozu-
                                                                shima, Miyake-jima, Nii-jima and O-shima; (2 JMA) on Dogo, 
                                                                Mikura-jima and in the Dozen Islands; (1 JMA) on Sadago-shima.

SEP 06  12 42 59.3  55.372 S   28.976 W   10 G  6.9  1.1  233  SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS REGION. MW 6.9 (GS), 6.8 (HRV). mb 6.0    
                                                                (GS). MS 6.5 (GS). Mo 2.5*10**19 Nm (GS), 1.7*10**19 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                2.0*10**19 Nm (PPT).

SEP 06  23 29 35.0  33.205 N  137.227 E   10 G  6.6  0.8  478  NEAR THE SOUTH COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 6.6 (HRV), 6.5 (GS),    
                                                                6.5 (NIED). mb 6.4 (GS). MS 6.3 (GS). ME 6.5 (GS). Mo 6.3*10**18 
                                                                Nm (GS), 1.0*10**19 Nm (HRV), 6.4*10**18 Nm (PPT), 6.0*10**18 Nm 
                                                                (NIED). Es 1.2*10**14 Nm (GS). Felt in southwestern Honshu from 
                                                                Kobe to Tokyo. Recorded (4 JMA) in Osaka, Mie, Shizuoka and 
                                                                Wakayama; (3 JMA) in Aichi, Fukui, Hyogo, Kanagawa, Kyoto, Nara, 
                                                                Shiga, Tottori and Yamanashi; (2 JMA) in Chiba, Hiroshima, 
                                                                Ishikawa, Nagano, Okayama, Saitama, Shimane, Tokyo and Toyama; 
                                                                (1 JMA) in Gumma, Miyagi, Niigata and Yamaguchi Prefectures. 
                                                                Recorded (3 JMA) in Tokushima and (2 JMA) in Ehime, Kagawa and 
                                                                Kochi Prefectures, Shikoku. Also recorded (3 JMA) on Kozu-shima, 
                                                                Nii-jima and O-shima; (2 JMA) on Aoga-shima, Hachijo-jima, 
                                                                Mikura-jima and Miyake-jima.

SEP 07  11 53 06.1  28.573 S   65.840 W   22 D  6.4  0.8  360  CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA. MW 6.4 (GS), 6.1 (HRV). mb 6.1 (GS). MS 6.1    
                                                                (GS). ME 6.3 (GS). Mo 4.2*10**18 Nm (GS), 1.7*10**18 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                1.4*10**18 Nm (PPT). Es 5.8*10**13 Nm (GS). At least one person 
                                                                killed, several people injured and some buildings damaged (VI) 
                                                                at Catamarca. Felt (III) at San Juan. Felt as far east as Buenos 
                                                                Aires and in parts of Chile.

SEP 07  12 15 49.7  34.682 N  103.781 E   10 A  5.2  0.8  108  GANSU, CHINA. mb 5.2 (GS). At least nineteen people injured, 600    
                                                                houses destroyed and more than 3,800 houses damaged in Gansu 
                                                                Province.

SEP 15  08 35 10.8   8.773 S  115.357 E   98    5.4  1.1  157  BALI REGION, INDONESIA. MW 5.4 (HRV). mb 5.2 (GS). Mo 1.3*10**17    
                                                                Nm (HRV). One person killed and two injured at Denpasar. Felt 
                                                                (V) at Mataram, Lombok and (II) at Banyuwangi, Java.

SEP 21  13 32 30.8  54.841 N   19.912 E   10 A  4.8  1.2  224  POLAND. MW 4.8 (HRV). mb 4.9 (GS). ML 4.8 (CLL), 4.7 (BRG). Mo    
                                                                1.6*10**16 Nm (HRV). At least three people injured and seventeen 
                                                                houses damaged (VI) at Kaliningrad, Russia. Damage to railroad 
                                                                tracks near Svetlogorsk, Russia. Minor damage occured at 
                                                                Suwalki, Poland. Felt (II) at Saint Petersburg, Russia. Felt 
                                                                throughout Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and northern 
                                                                Poland. Also felt in the areas of Copenhagen, Denmark; Helsinki, 
                                                                Finland; Oslo, Norway; and in southern Sweden.

OCT 06  14 40 39.9  35.950 N  139.919 E   64 D  5.8  0.8  405  NEAR THE SOUTH COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 5.8 (HRV), 5.7 (GS),    
                                                                5.7 (NIED). mb 5.5 (GS). Mo 4.8*10**17 Nm (HRV), 4.5*10**17 Nm 
                                                                (GS), 4.5*10**17 Nm (NIED). One person injured and two houses 
                                                                damaged at Temma. Felt in Chiba, Gumma, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, 
                                                                Nagano, Shizuoka and Tokyo Prefectures. Recorded (5L JMA) in 
                                                                Ibaraki, Saitama and Tochigi; (4 JMA) in Chiba, Gumma, Kanagawa 
                                                                and Tokyo; (3 JMA) in Fukui, Nagano, Shizuoka and Yamanashi; (2 
                                                                JMA) in Miyagi; (1 JMA) in Aichi, Gifu, Iwate and Yamagata 
                                                                Prefectures. Also recorded (2 JMA) on O-shima and (1 JMA) on 
                                                                Hachijo-jima, Kozu-shima, Miyake-jima and Nii-jima.

OCT 07  21 46 20.3  37.125 N   54.477 E   35 D  5.6  0.8  526  NORTHERN IRAN. MW 5.6 (GS), 5.6 (HRV). mb 5.6 (GS). MS 5.4 (GS).    
                                                                ML 6.0 (THR). Mo 3.2*10**17 Nm (HRV), 3.1*10**17 Nm (GS). At 
                                                                least 60 people injured in Golestan. Felt as far west as Tehran.

OCT 08  08 27 53.5  10.951 S  162.161 E   36 G  6.8  0.9  545  SOLOMON ISLANDS. MW 6.8 (GS), 6.8 (HRV). mb 6.1 (GS). MS 6.9    
                                                                (GS). ME 6.8 (GS). Mo 1.6*10**19 Nm (HRV), 1.5*10**19 Nm (GS). 
                                                                Es 3.7*10**14 Nm (GS).

OCT 08  14 36 06.1  13.925 N  120.534 E  105 G  6.5  0.9  526  MINDORO, PHILIPPINES. MW 6.5 (GS), 6.4 (HRV). mb 6.3 (GS). ME 6.4    
                                                                (GS). Mo 6.6*10**18 Nm (GS), 5.2*10**18 Nm (HRV), 5.1*10**18 Nm 
                                                                (PPT). Es 7.6*10**13 Nm (GS). Power outages occurred in the 
                                                                Manila area, Luzon. Felt (V PIVS) at Puerto Galera. Also felt (V 
                                                                PIVS) at Los Banos, Malolos, San Fernando and Tagaytay; (IV 
                                                                PIVS) at Buco and Talisay, Luzon. Felt on Mindoro and throughout 
                                                                central and southern Luzon.

OCT 09  21 26 53.6  11.422 N   86.665 W   35 G  7.0  1.1  441  NEAR THE COAST OF NICARAGUA. MW 7.0 (HRV), 6.8 (GS). mb 6.0 (GS).    
                                                                MS 7.0 (GS). ME 6.5 (GS). ML 6.8 (SNET). Mo 3.0*10**19 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                2.0*10**19 Nm (GS), 3.2*10**19 Nm (PPT). Es 1.1*10**14 Nm (GS). 
                                                                Felt at Managua and in much of Nicaragua. Felt (IV) at San 
                                                                Salvador, El Salvador. Felt as far north as Tegucigalpa, 
                                                                Honduras and as far south as San Jose, Costa Rica.

OCT 15  04 08 50.2  24.530 N  122.694 E   94    6.7  0.9  698  TAIWAN REGION. MW 6.7 (GS), 6.6 (HRV). mb 6.4 (GS). ME 6.3 (GS).    
                                                                Mo 8.7*10**18 Nm (HRV), 1.1*10**19 Nm (GS). Es 7.4*10**13 Nm 
                                                                (GS). Several people injured and buildings damaged in T'ao-yuan 
                                                                County. Felt throughout Taiwan. Also felt in much of the Ryukyu 
                                                                Islands, Japan. Recorded (5 TAP) in Hua-lien and I-lan; (4 TAP) 
                                                                in T'ai-chung, T'ai-pei, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan and Yun-lin; (3 
                                                                TAP) in Chang-hua, Chia-i, Hsin-chu, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou and T'ai-
                                                                nan; (2 TAP) in Kao-hsiung and P'ing-tung Counties. Also 
                                                                recorded (5L JMA) on Yonaguni-jima; (4 JMA) on Iriomote-jima and 
                                                                Ishigaki-jima; (3 JMA) on Miyako-jima; (2 JMA) on Tarama-shima; 
                                                                (1 JMA) on Amami-oshima and Kume-jima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

OCT 18  22 11 44.9  25.073 N   99.169 E   30    4.8  0.6   87  YUNNAN, CHINA. mb 4.8 (GS). MS 4.4 (GS). Twelve people injured    
                                                                and more than 20,000 houses damaged or destroyed in the Baoshan 
                                                                area. Felt strongly in Changning, Longling, Shidian and 
                                                                Tengchong Counties.

OCT 23  08 56 00.8  37.226 N  138.779 E   16 G  6.6  1.1  782  NEAR THE WEST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 6.6 (HRV), 6.4 (GS), 6.7    
                                                                (OBN), 6.6 (NIED). mb 6.4 (GS). MS 6.3 (GS). ME 6.5 (GS). Mo 
                                                                8.6*10**18 Nm (HRV), 3.8*10**18 Nm (GS), 7.5*10**18 Nm (NIED), 
                                                                2.4*10**19 Nm (PPT), 1.3*10**19 Nm (OBN). Es 1.4*10**14 Nm (GS). 
                                                                At least 40 people killed, 3,183 injured and 6,000 buildings 
                                                                destroyed or damaged in Niigata Prefecture. A high-speed train 
                                                                derailed; several roads, bridges and rail lines damaged; at 
                                                                least 1,300 landslides and 11 fires occurred; several gas, water 
                                                                and power lines damaged in Niigata Prefecture. Felt in Chiba, 
                                                                Fukushima, Gumma, Kanagawa, Miyagi, Saitama and Tokyo 
                                                                Prefectures.

OCT 27  01 40 50.2  37.284 N  138.885 E   14 D  6.0  0.9  499  NEAR THE WEST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 6.0 (GS), 5.9 (HRV), 5.8    
                                                                (NIED). mb 5.7 (GS). MS 5.4 (GS). ME 5.8 (GS). Mo 8.6*10**17 Nm 
                                                                (HRV), 1.2*10**18 Nm (GS), 6.3*10**17 Nm (NIED). Es 1.3*10**13 
                                                                Nm (GS). At least five people injured; one building destroyed 
                                                                and some others damaged; water and gas lines broke in Niigata 
                                                                Prefecture. Felt in Gumma, Kanagawa, Nagano, Saitama and Tokyo 
                                                                Prefectures. Recorded (6L JMA) in Niigata; (4 JMA) in Fukushima, 
                                                                Gumma and Saitama; (3 JMA) in Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Kanagawa, 
                                                                Miyagi, Nagano, Tochigi, Tokyo, Toyama, Yamagata and Yamanashi; 
                                                                (2 JMA) in Chiba, Gifu and Shizuoka; (1 JMA) in Aichi, Akita, 
                                                                Aomori, Osaka and Shiga Prefectures. Also recorded (4 JMA) on 
                                                                Sadoga-shima, (2 JMA) on Awa-shima and (1 JMA) on Hegura-jima 
                                                                and Tobi-shima.

NOV 02  10 02 12.8  49.277 N  128.772 W   10 G  6.7  1.2  459  VANCOUVER ISLAND, CANADA REGION. MW 6.7 (GS), 6.6 (HRV), 6.6    
                                                                (PGC). mb 5.8 (GS). MS 6.4 (GS). ME 6.9 (GS). Mo 8.6*10**18 Nm 
                                                                (HRV), 1.1*10**19 Nm (GS), 1.1*10**19 Nm (PPT), 1.0*10**19 Nm 
                                                                (PGC). Es 5.9*10**14 Nm (GS). Felt at Alert Bay, Bamfield, Port 
                                                                Alice, Vancouver and Victoria.

NOV 03  23 57 28.1  37.434 N  138.752 E   10 G  5.3  0.7  193  NEAR THE WEST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 5.3 (HRV), 5.1 (NIED).    
                                                                mb 5.4 (GS). MS 4.5 (GS). Mo 8.7*10**16 Nm (HRV), 5.6*10**16 Nm 
                                                                (NIED). One person injured at Nagaoka. Felt in Niigata 
                                                                Prefecture. Recorded (5U JMA) in Niigata; (3 JMA) in Fukushima, 
                                                                Gumma, Ishikawa and Nagano; (2 JMA) in Ibaraki, Miyagi, Saitama, 
                                                                Tochigi, Toyama and Yamagata; (1 JMA) in Shizuoka and Tokyo 
                                                                Prefectures. Also recorded (3 JMA) on Sadoga-shima.

NOV 08  02 15 58.8  37.396 N  138.862 E   10 G  5.5  0.7  382  NEAR THE WEST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 5.5 (GS), 5.5 (HRV), 5.5    
                                                                (NIED). mb 5.6 (GS). MS 5.0 (GS). Mo 2.3*10**17 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                2.0*10**17 Nm (GS), 2.2*10**17 Nm (NIED). At least eight people 
                                                                injured and a landslide occurred in Niigata Prefecture. Felt at 
                                                                Tokyo. Recorded (5U JMA) in Niigata; (4 JMA) in Fukushima; (3 
                                                                JMA) in Gumma, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Nagano, Saitama and Yamagata; 
                                                                (2 JMA) in Kanagawa, Miyagi, Tochigi, Tokyo, Toyama and 
                                                                Yamanashi; (1 JMA) in Akita, Chiba and Shizuoka Prefectures. 
                                                                Also recorded (2 JMA) on Sadoga-shima and (1 JMA) on Hegura-jima.

NOV 09  18 43 08.4  37.368 N  138.825 E   10    5.1  0.8  211  NEAR THE WEST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN. MW 5.1 (HRV), 5.1 (NIED).    
                                                                mb 5.2 (GS). MS 4.6 (GS). Mo 4.4*10**16 Nm (HRV), 4.4*10**16 Nm 
                                                                (NIED). One person injured at Mitsuke. Felt in northern Honshu. 
                                                                A minor landslide occurred near Tochio. Recorded (5L JMA) in 
                                                                Niigata; (3 JMA) in Fukushima; (2 JMA) in Gumma, Ibaraki, 
                                                                Ishikawa, Nagano, Saitama and Yamagata; (1 JMA) in Miyagi, Tokyo 
                                                                and Tochigi Prefectures. Also recorded (2 JMA) on Sadoga-shima.

NOV 09  23 58 23.6  11.150 S  163.706 E   13 G  6.9  1.0  405  SOLOMON ISLANDS. MW 6.9 (GS), 6.9 (HRV). mb 6.6 (GS). MS 6.7    
                                                                (GS). Mo 2.8*10**19 Nm (HRV), 2.2*10**19 Nm (GS), 5.4*10**19 Nm 
                                                                (PPT).

NOV 11  17 34 52.0  11.128 S  162.208 E   10 G  6.7  1.1  233  SOLOMON ISLANDS. MW 6.7 (GS), 6.6 (HRV). mb 5.8 (GS). MS 6.6    
                                                                (GS). ME 6.1 (GS). Mo 1.2*10**19 Nm (GS), 1.0*10**19 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                7.6*10**18 Nm (PPT). Es 3.7*10**13 Nm (GS).

NOV 11  21 26 41.1   8.152 S  124.868 E   10 G  7.5  1.1  301  KEPULAUAN ALOR, INDONESIA. MW 7.5 (HRV), 7.4 (GS). mb 6.5 (GS).    
                                                                MS 7.3 (GS). ME 7.4 (GS). Mo 2.1*10**20 Nm (HRV), 1.6*10**20 Nm 
                                                                (GS), 6.6*10**19 Nm (OBN), 1.7*10**20 Nm (PPT). Es 3.2*10**15 Nm 
                                                                (GS). At least 34 people killed, 400 injured, 781 buildings 
                                                                destroyed and 16,712 damaged on Alor. Landslides blocked roads 
                                                                in some areas. Felt (VIII) at Kalabahi. Felt (V) as far away as 
                                                                Dili, East Timor.

NOV 15  09 06 56.5   4.695 N   77.508 W   15 G  7.2  0.9  708  NEAR THE WEST COAST OF COLOMBIA. MW 7.2 (GS), 7.2 (HRV). mb 6.6    
                                                                (GS). MS 7.1 (GS). ME 7.4 (GS). Mo 7.6*10**19 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                6.6*10**19 Nm (GS), 4.6*10**19 Nm (PPT). Es 2.8*10**15 Nm (GS). 
                                                                Two people seriously injured, four others slightly injured, at 
                                                                least 154 buildings destroyed and 290 damaged in Bajo Baudo. 
                                                                Seven people injured and at least 67 houses destroyed or damaged 
                                                                at Buenaventura. One person injured and some buildings damaged 
                                                                at Cerrito. Buildings damaged at El Cairo, Jamundi and Restrepo. 
                                                                Some damage and power and telephone service interrupted at Cali. 
                                                                Power interrupted at Bogota. Felt at Armenia, Quibdo and in much 
                                                                of western and central Colombia. Felt lightly by people in tall 
                                                                buildings at Quito, Ecuador. Earthquake lights observed in the 
                                                                area.

NOV 17  21 09 13.1  20.068 S  178.710 W  623 D  6.6  1.0  510  FIJI REGION. MW 6.6 (GS), 6.5 (HRV). mb 5.9 (GS). ME 5.7 (GS). Mo    
                                                                8.4*10**18 Nm (GS), 7.2*10**18 Nm (HRV), 5.5*10**18 Nm (PPT). Es 
                                                                6.8*10**12 Nm (GS).

NOV 20  08 07 22.0   9.602 N   84.172 W   16 G  6.4  0.9  530  COSTA RICA. MW 6.4 (GS), 6.4 (HRV). mb 6.2 (GS). MS 6.3 (GS). ME    
                                                                6.4 (GS). Mo 4.8*10**18 Nm (GS), 4.6*10**18 Nm (HRV), 5.5*10**18 
                                                                Nm (PPT). Es 9.2*10**13 Nm (GS). Eight people killed and several 
                                                                injured; 526 buildings damaged or destroyed; many roads and 
                                                                bridges damaged; some landslides occurred in the San Jose area. 
                                                                Water lines broke at Parrita and power outages occurred at 
                                                                Quepos. Felt (VII) at Parrita and Quepos; (VI) at Damas, Failes 
                                                                and Jaco; (V) at Alajuela, Monterrey, Naranjo, Puntarenas, San 
                                                                Isidro, Turrialba and Zapote; (IV) at Batan, Bribri, Limon, Los 
                                                                Chiles, Nicoya, Palmar Sur and Upala. Felt in much of Costa Rica.

NOV 21  11 41 07.7  15.679 N   61.706 W   14 G  6.3  1.0  672  LEEWARD ISLANDS. MW 6.3 (GS), 6.3 (HRV). mb 6.3 (GS). MS 6.1    
                                                                (GS). ME 6.4 (GS). Mo 3.4*10**18 Nm (HRV), 3.2*10**18 Nm (GS), 
                                                                7.1*10**18 Nm (PPT). Es 7.6*10**13 Nm (GS). One person killed, 
                                                                at least two injured and several houses destroyed or damaged at 
                                                                Trois-Rivieres; one person injured at Capesterre-Belle-Eau; ten 
                                                                people slightly injured on Les Saintes; at least eight houses 
                                                                destroyed and twenty-five damaged on Terre-de-Bas, Guadeloupe. 
                                                                At least twenty houses damaged and power outages occurred in 
                                                                northern Dominica. Felt in Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Kitts and 
                                                                Nevis and as far as Saint Lucia.

NOV 22  04 01 30.4  33.297 N   47.977 E   36 D  5.0  1.1  268  WESTERN IRAN. MW 5.0 (HRV). mb 5.0 (GS). MS 4.0 (GS). Mo    
                                                                3.7*10**16 Nm (HRV). Several people slightly injured and several 
                                                                vehicles damaged by rockslides on the road between Khorramabad 
                                                                and Pol-e Dokhtar. Some houses slightly damaged in the Pol-e 
                                                                Dokhtar area.

NOV 22  20 26 23.9  46.676 S  164.721 E   10 G  7.1  1.1  585  OFF WEST COAST OF THE SOUTH ISLAND, N.Z. MW 7.1 (HRV), 7.0 (GS).    
                                                                mb 6.4 (GS). MS 7.1 (GS). ME 6.9 (GS). Mo 5.6*10**19 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                3.4*10**19 Nm (GS), 5.5*10**19 Nm (PPT). Es 4.5*10**14 Nm (GS). 
                                                                Minor damage at Invercargill and in the Southland-Otago area. 
                                                                Felt in much of the South Island and as far north as Hamilton on 
                                                                the North Island.

NOV 24  22 59 40.0  45.626 N   10.559 E   17    5.1  1.1  529  NORTHERN ITALY. MW 5.1 (HRV). mb 5.3 (GS). MS 4.6 (GS). ML 5.5    
                                                                (FBB), 5.5 (LDG), 5.5 (GRF), 5.3 (STR), 5.1 (FUR), 5.0 (ZAMG). 
                                                                Mo 4.5*10**16 Nm (HRV). At least nine people injured and many 
                                                                buildings damaged in the Brescia area. Felt as far west as 
                                                                Torino, as far south as La Spezia and as far east as Venice. 
                                                                Also felt at Bern, Switzerland.

NOV 26  02 25 03.3   3.609 S  135.404 E   10 G  7.1  1.2  439  PAPUA, INDONESIA. MW 7.1 (HRV), 7.0 (GS). mb 6.2 (GS). MS 7.2    
                                                                (GS). ME 6.8 (GS). Mo 5.5*10**19 Nm (HRV), 3.1*10**19 Nm (GS), 
                                                                4.4*10**19 Nm (PPT). Es 3.5*10**14 Nm (GS). At least 32 people 
                                                                killed, 130 injured, 328 buildings destroyed (VIII), airport and 
                                                                seaport damaged and power outages occurred at Nabire. Damage 
                                                                estimated at 55 million U.S. dollars. Felt (IV) at Serui, Yapen; 
                                                                (III) at Biak, Biak and Timika, Papua.

NOV 28  02 35 13.4  26.525 S  113.834 W   10 G  6.6  1.4  265  EASTER ISLAND REGION. MW 6.6 (HRV), 6.5 (GS). mb 5.6 (GS). MS 6.1    
                                                                (GS). Mo 9.0*10**18 Nm (HRV), 5.7*10**18 Nm (GS), 1.1*10**19 Nm 
                                                                (PPT).

NOV 28  18 32 14.1  43.006 N  145.119 E   39 G  7.0  0.8  929  HOKKAIDO, JAPAN REGION. MW 7.0 (GS), 7.0 (HRV), 7.4 (OBN), 7.0    
                                                                (NIED). mb 6.4 (GS). MS 6.7 (GS). ME 7.0 (GS). Mo 3.7*10**19 Nm 
                                                                (GS), 3.7*10**19 Nm (HRV), 4.0*10**19 Nm (PPT), 3.4*10**19 Nm 
                                                                (NIED), 1.6*10**20 Nm (OBN). Es 6.9*10**14 Nm (GS). At least 24 
                                                                people injured; road damage occurred; power, natural gas and 
                                                                railway service interrupted in the Bekkai-Kushiro-Nemuro area. 
                                                                Minor damage to docks and buildings at Nemuro. A 10 cm tsunami 
                                                                was recorded at Nemuro. Felt at Misawa, Honshu. Felt (IV) at 
                                                                Yuzhno-Kuril'sk, Kunashir and (III) on Shikotan and at Kuril'sk, 
                                                                Iturup. Recorded (5U JMA) in eastern Hokkaido, (4 JMA) in south-
                                                                central Hokkaido, (3 JMA) in southwestern Hokkaido and (1 JMA) 
                                                                in northern Hokkaido. Also recorded (3 JMA) in Aomori, Iwate and 
                                                                Miyagi; (2 JMA) in Akita, Ibaraki and Yamagata; (1 JMA) in 
                                                                Fukushima, Kanagawa, Saitama, Shizuoka, Tochigi and Tokyo 
                                                                Prefectures, Honshu.

DEC 01  17 42 24.7  36.848 N    3.448 E   10 G  4.5  0.9  120  NORTHERN ALGERIA. mb 4.5 (GS). At least 15 people injured, minor    
                                                                damage to some buildings and power outages occurred in the 
                                                                Boumerdas area. Felt at Algiers.

DEC 01  23 17 21.5   3.665 S  135.528 E   10 G  5.5  1.0   96  PAPUA, INDONESIA. MW 5.5 (GS), 5.5 (HRV). mb 5.3 (GS). MS 5.3    
                                                                (GS). Mo 2.3*10**17 Nm (HRV), 2.0*10**17 Nm (GS). One person 
                                                                killed in the Nabire area. Felt at Jayapura.

DEC 05  08 30 59.5  36.865 N    3.421 E   10 G  4.5  1.0  174  NORTHERN ALGERIA. mb 4.5 (GS). ML 4.7 (ALG). Forty-six people    
                                                                injured in the Zemmouri area. Felt at Algiers.

DEC 06  14 15 11.8  42.900 N  145.228 E   35 G  6.8  0.8  759  HOKKAIDO, JAPAN REGION. MW 6.8 (GS), 6.8 (HRV), 6.8 (NIED). mb    
                                                                6.5 (GS). MS 6.5 (GS). ME 6.7 (GS). Mo 1.5*10**19 Nm (GS), 
                                                                1.5*10**19 Nm (HRV), 1.6*10**19 Nm (NIED), 1.0*10**19 Nm (PPT). 
                                                                Es 2.7*10**14 Nm (GS). At least 4 people injured and power 
                                                                outages occurred in the Kushiro area. Felt at Obihiro. Also felt 
                                                                at Misawa and Sendai, Honshu. Recorded (5U JMA) in the Kushiro 
                                                                area; (5L JMA) in the Obihiro area and in eastern Hokkaido; (4 
                                                                JMA) in the Chitose-Tomakomai area and in south-central 
                                                                Hokkaido; (3 JMA) in southwestern and central Hokkaido; (2 JMA) 
                                                                in the Shibetsu area; (1 JMA) in northern Hokkaido. Also 
                                                                recorded (3 JMA) in Aomori and Miyagi; (2 JMA) in Akita, Iwate 
                                                                and Yamagata; (1 JMA) in Fukushima, Ibaraki, Niigata and 
                                                                Shizuoka Prefectures, Honshu.

DEC 09  08 49 00.2  24.757 N   92.539 E   35 D  5.4  0.7  236  INDIA-BANGLADESH BORDER REGION. MW 5.4 (GS), 5.3 (HRV). mb 5.5    
                                                                (GS). MS 4.7 (GS). Mo 1.6*10**17 Nm (GS), 1.1*10**17 Nm (HRV). 
                                                                Several people slightly injured at Hailakandi, India. Minor 
                                                                damage in Cachar, India. Felt in much of central and southern 
                                                                Assam, India. Felt in eastern Meghalaya, India. Also felt at 
                                                                Chittagong and in parts of eastern Bangladesh.

DEC 14  05 56 10.0  44.119 N  141.793 E   10 G  5.8  0.9  494  HOKKAIDO, JAPAN REGION. MW 5.8 (GS), 5.8 (HRV). mb 5.8 (GS). MS    
                                                                5.3 (GS). Mo 6.2*10**17 Nm (GS), 4.8*10**17 Nm (HRV). Two people 
                                                                injured at Obira and one at Haboro. Some buildings, roads and 
                                                                water lines damaged at Tomamae. Felt in northern and western 
                                                                Hokkaido. Recorded (5U JMA) in the Haboro area; (4 JMA) in the 
                                                                Shibetsu-Numata area; (3 JMA) in the Otararea; (2 JMA) in the 
                                                                Mombetsu area and much of western Hokkaido; (1 JMA) in the 
                                                                Obihiro, Shari-Yubetsu and Setana areas. Also recorded (2 JMA) 
                                                                on Rishiri-to.

DEC 14  23 20 13.3  18.958 N   81.409 W   10 G  6.8  1.0  639  CAYMAN ISLANDS REGION. MW 6.8 (GS), 6.8 (HRV). mb 6.2 (GS). MS    
                                                                6.7 (GS). Mo 2.1*10**19 Nm (GS), 1.8*10**19 Nm (HRV), 1.2*10**19 
                                                                Nm (PPT). Felt (VI) at Bodden Town and West Bay; (V) at George 
                                                                Town, Grand Cayman. Felt (III-V) in many parts of Cuba. Also 
                                                                felt at Cancun, Mexico and Half Way Tree and New Kingston, 
                                                                Jamaica.

DEC 20  23 02 12.4& 37.042 N   28.206 E    5    5.3       456  WESTERN TURKEY. . MW 5.3 (HRV). mb 5.2 (GS). MS 4.7 (GS). Mo    
                                                                1.1*10**17 Nm (HRV). Three people injured, some buildings 
                                                                damaged and rockslides blocked a highway at Marmaris. Felt at 
                                                                Bodrum, Datca and Izmir.

DEC 23  14 59 04.4  49.312 S  161.345 E   10 G  8.1  1.1  331  NORTH OF MACQUARIE ISLAND. MW 8.1 (HRV), 8.0 (GS). mb 6.5 (GS).    
                                                                MS 7.7 (GS). ME 8.2 (GS). Mo 1.6*10**21 Nm (HRV), 1.0*10**21 Nm 
                                                                (GS), 5.4*10**20 Nm (PPT). Es 5.2*10**16 Nm (GS). Felt 
                                                                throughout Tasmania, Australia and in much of the South Island, 
                                                                New Zealand.

DEC 26  00 58 53.4   3.295 N   95.982 E   30 G  9.0  1.2  601  OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA. MW 9.0 (HRV), 8.2 (GS).    
                                                                mb 7.0 (GS). MS 8.8 (GS). ME 8.5 (GS). Mo 4.0*10**22 Nm (HRV), 
                                                                2.6*10**21 Nm (GS), 2.1*10**21 Nm (PPT). Es 1.1*10**17 Nm (GS). 
                                                                This is the third largest earthquake in the world since 1900 
                                                                and is the largest since the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska 
                                                                earthquake. In total, 227,898 people were killed or were missing
                                                                and presumed dead and about 1.7 million people were displaced 
                                                                by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami in 14 countries in 
                                                                South Asia and East Africa. 
                                                                (In January 2005, the death toll was 286,000. In April 2005,
                                                                Indonesia reduced its estimate for the number missing by over 50,000.)
                                                                The earthquake was felt (IX) at 
                                                                Banda Aceh, (VIII) at Meulaboh and (IV) at Medan, Sumatra and 
                                                                (III-V) in parts of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Maldives, 
                                                                Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The tsunami caused 
                                                                more casualties than any other in recorded history and was 
                                                                recorded nearly world-wide on tide gauges in the Indian, Pacific 
                                                                and Atlantic Oceans. Seiches were observed in India and the 
                                                                United States. Subsidence and landslides were observed in 
                                                                Sumatra. A mud volcano near Baratang, Andaman Islands became 
                                                                active on December 28 and gas emissions were reported in Arakan, 
                                                                Myanmar.
                                                                A detailed summary of this event is given at the end of 
                                                                this publication.

DEC 26  04 21 29.8   6.910 N   92.958 E   39    7.1  1.0  385  NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION. MW 7.1 (HRV). mb 6.1 (GS). MS 7.5    
                                                                (GS). Mo 5.6*10**19 Nm (HRV).

DEC 26  09 20 01.6   8.879 N   92.375 E   16 *  6.6  1.1  353  NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION. MW 6.6 (HRV). mb 6.0 (GS). MS 6.6    
                                                                (GS). Mo 1.0*10**19 Nm (HRV).

NOTABLE NORTH AMERICAN EARTHQUAKES

SEP 28  17 15 24.2& 35.819 N  120.364 W    9    6.0       363  CENTRAL CALIFORNIA. . MW 6.0 (HRV), 6.0 (BRK). mb 5.4 (GS).    
                                                                MS 5.8 (GS). Mo 1.1*10**18 Nm (HRV), 9.8*10**17 Nm (BRK). Minor 
                                                                damage (VI) at Parkfield, San Miguel and Shandon. Felt (V) at 
                                                                Avenal, Bradley, Coalinga, King City, Lockwood, Paso Robles and 
                                                                Templeton. Felt in much of California from Sacramento, Santa 
                                                                Rosa and San Francisco south as far as Los Angeles and Orange 
                                                                County. Also felt at Las Vegas and Reno, Nevada.

Compiled by Waverly J. Person and Pamela J. Benfield.

Hypocenters will be recomputed for December 2004.


   THE SUMATRA-ANDAMAN ISLANDS EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF 26 DEC 2004

This is the third largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and is the 
largest since the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska earthquake. The earthquake
itself caused severe damage and casualties in northern Sumatra, Indonesia and 
in the Nicobar Islands, India. The earthquake casualties are included with the 
tsunami statistics below. 

The earthquake was felt at the following selected localities:

    Indonesia:  IX   at Banda Aceh
                VIII at Meulaboh
                IV   at Medan and Sampali
                III  at Bukittinggi, Parapat and Payakumbuh
                Felt at Jakarta

    India:      VII  at Port Blair, Andaman Islands
                IV   at Madras
                III  at Bengaluru and Vishakhapatnam
                Felt at Bangalore, Bhubaneshwar, Calcutta and Kochi

    Malaysia:   V    at Gelugor Estate
                IV   at Sungai Ara
                III  at Alor Setar, George Town, Kampong Tanjong Bunga,
                        Kuala Lumpur and Kulim

    Thailand:   V    at Hat Yai
                IV   at Bangkok
                III  at Chiang Mai and Phuket

    Myanmar:    IV   at Mandalay
                III  at Rangoon

    Singapore:  II   on Singapore

    Bangladesh: III  at Dhaka
                Felt at Chittagong

    Sri Lanka:  II   at Kandy and in other parts of Sri Lanka	

    Maldives:   IV   at Male (nearly 2500 km from the epicenter)

    Guam:       Felt by people in a high rise building at Hagatna (more than 
                     5400 km from the epicenter)

The tsunami from this earthquake caused extreme destruction in South Asia,
was recorded nearly world-wide and killed more people than any tsunami in 
recorded history. In total, at least 283,100 people were killed, 14,100 are 
missing and 1,126,900 were displaced by the earthquake and tsunami:


At least 108,100 people were killed, 127,700 are missing and presumed dead and 
426,800 were displaced by the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and Sumatera Utara 
Provinces, Indonesia. About 70 percent of the small-scale fishing fleet was 
destroyed. Tsunami runup heights of more than 30 meters were observed along the 
west coast of Sumatra. 

At least 30,900 people were killed, 5,400 missing and 552,600 displaced by the
tsunami in Sri Lanka, where wave heights were estimated to be 5-10 meters.
About 66 percent of the fishing fleet was destroyed and 10 of 12 major fishing
harbors in the country had some damage.

At least 10,700 people were killed, 5,600 missing and 112,500 displaced in 
Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu and Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands, India. Wave heights were estimated to be more than 20 meters 
in the Andaman Islands and 10 meters on the east coast of India. 

At least 5,300 people were killed, 8,400 injured and 3,100 missing along the
west coast of Thailand, where wave heights were estimated to be as high as 
3-5 meters in the Phuket area. 

The tsunami also caused casualties and/or damage in the following countries:
    Somalia:   at least 150 people killed and about 5,000 displaced.
    Maldives:  82 people killed, 26 missing and more than 21,600 displaced.
    Malaysia:  68 people killed, 6 missing and about 4,200 displaced.
    Myanmar:   90 people killed, 10 missing and 3,200 displaced.
    Tanzania:  10 people killed.
    Seychelles: 3 people killed.
    Bangladesh: 2 people killed.
    Kenya:      1 person killed.
    Madagascar: about 1,000 people displaced.
    Mauritius:  some damage.
    Mozambique: tsunami was observed, but no damage reported.

In Australia, the tsunami caused minor damage at Geraldton and Mangles Bay. 
A 30 centimeter wave was observed at Penguin Island. People were swept into 
the ocean at Delambre Island and Geographe Bay, but all survived. The tsunami 
was observed at Busselton.  

Maximum tsunami heights, peak-to-trough in centimeters, were recorded at the 
following selected tide stations:

Indian Ocean:

    Kochi, India                            130
    Tuticorin, India                        210
    Vishakhapatnam, India                   240

    Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago         80

    Colombo, Sri Lanka                      260

    Salalah, Oman                           250

    Lamu, Kenya                             120

    Zanzibar, Tanzania                       80

    Male, Maldives                          210

    Port Louis, Mauritius                   210

    Port Elizabeth, South Africa            273
    Richards Bay, South Africa              165

    East Ongul Island, Antarctica            75

    Cocos Island, Australia                  42
    Esperance, Western Australia, Australia  80
    Hillarys, Western Australia, Australia   90
    Portland, Victoria, Australia            85

    Mid-ocean, about 5 S, SSE of Sri Lanka  100 approximate
    (from Jason 1 satellite altimeter)

Pacific Ocean:

    Rosslyn Bay, Queensland, Australia       25
    Spring Bay, Tasmania, Australia          60

    Chatham Island, New Zealand              35
    Jackson Bay, South Island, New Zealand   65
    Napier, North Island, New Zealand        30
    Timaru, South Island, New Zealand        80

    Port Vila, Vanuatu                       15

    Nukualofa, Tonga                         10

    Suva, Fiji                               11

    Pago Pago, American Samoa                10



    Nuku Hiva, French Polynesia               5

    Noumea, New Caledonia                    10

    Severo-Kurilsk, Russia                   29

    Bella Bella, British Columbia, Canada     9
    Tofino, British Columbia, Canada         15

    Adak, Alaska, U.S.                       21
    Sand Point, Alaska, U.S.                 28
    Crescent City, California, U.S.          61
    Point Reyes, California, U.S.            39
    Port San Luis, California, U.S.          53
    San Diego, California, U.S.              32
    Hilo, Hawaii, U.S.                       18
    Kahului, Hawaii, U.S.                    30
    Neah Bay, Washington, U.S.               13

    Cabo San Lucas, Mexico                   24
    Manzanillo, Mexico                       80

    Acajutla, El Salvador                    32 

    Baltra Island, Galapagos, Ecuador        36

    Callao, Peru                             68

    Arica, Chile                             72
    Puerto Williams, Chile                   29
    Valparaiso, Chile                        18

Atlantic Ocean:

    Cape Town, South Africa                  96
    Port Noloth, South Africa                50

    Newlyn, United Kingdom                   16

    Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada             43

    Atlantic City, New Jersey, U.S.          22
    Port Canaveral, Florida, U.S.            34

    San Juan, Puerto Rico                     4
    Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands         18

    Bermuda                                  12

    Imbituba, Brazil                        150 approximate
    Rio de Janiero, Brazil                   30


K. Abe has computed a tsunami magnitude (Mt) of 9.1 for this event.

Landslides and approximately 2 meters of subsidence were observed in Sumatra.
A mud volcano became active near Baratang, Andaman Islands on December 28. 
Gas emissions were reported in Arakan, Myanmar. Seiches occurred in Jharkhand,
Maharashtra, Orissa and West Bengal, India and as far away as Tulsa County, 
Oklahoma, United States.  Water level fluctuations occurred in wells as 
far away as Florida, Nebraska and Virginia, United States. 

Principal sources:
  U.N. Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Situation Reports and 
     ReliefWeb website as of 2 Feb 2005. For updates, see
     http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/dbc.nsf/doc100?OpenForm.
  A. Rabinovich and J. Gower, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Canada, website
     http://www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/osap/projects/tsunami/default_e.htm.
  NOAA, West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, webpage on the Indian
     Ocean tsunami, http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/IndianOSite/IndianO12-26-04.htm.
  K. Abe and Y. Tsuji, et al., Earthquake Research Institute, University
     of Tokyo, Special Event Page, at
     http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/topics/SUMATRA2004/index-e.html
  S. Martin, Amateur Seismic Centre, Pune, India, Special Event page, at
     http://asc-india.org/events/041226_bob.htm.
  V. Dent, University of Western Australia, Asian Tsunami effects in Western
     Australia, at 
     http://www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/welcome/asian_tsunami_in_wa
  CNN website, at http://www.cnn.com/.
  BBC World Service website, at http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/index.shtml.
  Felt reports contributed to USGS "Did you feel it?" webpages, at:
     http://pasadena.wr.usgs.gov/shake/ous/index.html.


Tectonic Summary:

The devastating earthquake of 26 December 2004 occurred as thrust-faulting on 
the interface of the India plate and the Burma plate.  In a period of minutes, 
the faulting released elastic strains that had accumulated for centuries from 
ongoing subduction of the India plate beneath the overriding Burma plate.


In a broad sense, the India and Australian plates move toward the north-
northeast with respect to the interior of the Eurasia plate with velocities of 
about 60 mm/y in the region of the earthquake.  In the region of northern 
Sumatra and the Nicobar Islands, most of the relative motion of India/Australia 
and the Eurasia plate is accommodated at the Sunda trench and within several 
hundred kilometers to the east of the Sunda trench, on the boundaries of the 
Burma plate.  The direction in which India/Australia converges toward Eurasia 
is oblique to the trend of the Sunda trench.  The oblique motion is partitioned 
into thrust-faulting and strike-slip faulting.  The thrust faulting occurs on 
the interface between the India plate and the western margin of the Burma plate 
and involves slip directed at a large angle to the orientation of the trench.  
The strike-slip faulting occurs on the eastern boundary of the Burma plate and 
involves slip directed approximately parallel  to the trench.  The 26 December 
main shock occurred as the result of thrust faulting on the western Burma-plate 
boundary, but many strike-slip faulting aftershocks occurred on the eastern 
plate boundary.

Currently available models of the 26 December main-shock fault displacement 
differ in many interesting details, but are consistent in implying that fault-
rupture propagated to the northwest from the epicenter and that substantial 
fault-rupture occurred hundreds of kilometers northwest of the epicenter.  The 
data upon which the modeling is based do not permit confident resolution of the 
extent of rupture beyond about 500 km northwest of the main-shock epicenter.  
The width of the earthquake rupture, measured perpendicular to the Sunda 
trench, is estimated to have been about 150 kilometers and the maximum 
displacement on the fault plane about 20 meters. The sea floor overlying the 
thrust fault would have been uplifted by several meters as a result of the 
earthquake.

The zone of aftershocks to the 26 December earthquake is over 1300 km long.  
Because aftershocks occur on and very near the fault-planes of main shocks, the 
length of the aftershock zone suggests that main-shock fault-rupture may have 
extended north of the epicenter by an amount significantly larger than 500 km.  
However, a great earthquake may also trigger earthquake activity on faults that 
are distinct from the main-shock fault plane and separated from it by tens or 
even hundreds of kilometers.  We will not know until further analysis how much 
of the 26 December aftershock zone may correspond to activity in the immediate 
vicinity of the main-shock rupture, and how much may correspond to activity 
remote from the main-shock rupture.

Since 1900, earthquakes similarly sized or larger than the 26 December 
earthquake have been the magnitude 9.0 1952 Kamchatka earthquake, the magnitude 
9.1 1957 Andreanof Islands, Alaska, earthquake, the magnitude 9.5 1960 Chile 
earthquake, and the magnitude 9.2 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake.
All of these earthquakes, like the one on 26 December, were mega-thrust events,
occurring where one tectonic plate subducts beneath another.  All produced 
destructive tsunamis, although deaths and damage from the 26 December tsunami 
far exceed those caused by tsunamis associated with the earlier earthquakes.